Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni is the largest of all cranchiid species with adults reaching over 2 m in mantle length (Nesis, 1982). It is a circumpolar Antarctic species with young found north to the subtropical convergence (Nesis, 1982).

Brief diagnosis:

A taoniin ...

  • with hooks on the arms and tentacle clubs.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Hooks present on arms.

      Figure. Oral view of half of the arm crown (arms I-IV, arm I at top) of a juvenile M. hamiltoni, 86 mm ML. Drawing from Voss (1980), p. 395.

      Figure. Dorsal view of the brachial crown of a large M. hamiltoni. Photograph by Martin Collins.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular club with hooks.
    2. Diagonally set pairs of suckers and pads on distal 2/3 of tentacular stalk.

    Figure. Oral view of the tentacular club of a large M. hamiltoni. Note the very small marginal suckers. Photograph by Martin Collins.

  3. Funnel
    1. Funnel valve absent.
    2. Funnel organ: Dorsal pad with three papillae.

  4. Mantle
    1. Tubercles absent in adults, present in paralarvae and juveniles.

  5. Fins
    1. Fins ovate, without anterior lobes.
    2. Fins terminal.

  6. Photophores
    1. Two ocular photophores: crescent-shaped photogenic region in medial photophore and small, oblong photogenic region in lateral photophore within concavity of first.
    2. Arm tip photophores probably absent.

Comments

This is the only cranchiid that has hooks on the arms. Characteristics are from Voss (1980).

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Distribution

Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni occurs in the Southern Ocean from Antarctica to the southern tips of Africa, South America, and New Zealand. This species’ range coincides with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native ); antarctica (Native )

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Range Description

The colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni) occurs in the Southern Ocean where it is circumpolar (Young and Mangold 2006). Its distribution is principally south of the Antarctic convergence (Roper and Jereb 2010), although young individuals may occur north of the subtropical convergence (Young and Mangold 2006).
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M. hamiltoni is known only from Antarctic waters. A map of its distribution can be found here.

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Physical Description

Morphology

While no adults have been located or observed, M. hamiltoni may reach up to 14 m in length with a mantle length of 2-4 m. This species is the largest known invertebrate. The eyes can measure up to 30 cm in diameter, possibly the largest in the animal kingdom. These squid have the largest beaks of any squid, along with 25 rotating hooks that are aligned in two rows at the ends of their tentacles.

Range length: 14 (high) m.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

  • Rosa, R., B. Seibel. 2010. Slow pace of life of the Antarctic colossal squid. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 90: 1375-1378.
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Ecology

Habitat

Juveniles of M. hamiltoni swim in the upper 1000 m of the ocean and have not been found below 1000 m. The early stages are concentrated beneath the surface layer in the upper zone of the warm deep water, perhaps because at this depth biological activity is high resulting from spikes in phytoplankton biomass. Because adult beaks have been found in the stomachs of sperm whales, the adults must have reach depths of at least 2200 m.

Habitat Regions: polar ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: abyssal

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This extremely large squid which can attain a mantle length of more than 2 m occurs in the cold waters of the Southern Ocean (Young and Mangold 2006). Roper and co-workers (1984) state that this species has a maximum mantle length of 2.5 m, total length of more than 4 m and wet weight of 150 kg. In February 2007, a very large female specimen was caught by New Zealand fishermen, weighing 495 kg and of 10 m length (Anderton 2007). Little is known about the life cycle, biology and ecology of this species. Planktonic paralarvae have been collected in the upper water column from 20 to 500 m, while larger juveniles occur at deeper depths between 500 to 2,000 m (Voss et al. 1992). There is no evidence of diel vertical migration (Lu and Williams 1994). Mature males have spermatophores that range from 17 to 27 cm in length (Roper et al. 1984). It is an important prey item for sperm whales (Voss et al. 1992), long finned pilot whales, southern elephant seals, southern bottle whales, albatross and Patagonian toothfish. Its diet consists of mesopelagic fish (e.g. from the Myctophidae and Paralepididae families) and squid (including cannibalism, Lu and Williams 1994).

Systems
  • Marine
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bathypelagic
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Depth range based on 9 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 9 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 91 - 3111
  Temperature range (°C): 0.571 - 21.804
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.296 - 38.903
  Salinity (PPS): 34.644 - 36.007
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.158 - 5.221
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.302 - 2.880
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.317 - 141.335

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 91 - 3111

Temperature range (°C): 0.571 - 21.804

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.296 - 38.903

Salinity (PPS): 34.644 - 36.007

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.158 - 5.221

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.302 - 2.880

Silicate (umol/l): 1.317 - 141.335
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni has low prey requirements and feeds on large fish including the Patagonian toothfish, Dissostichus eleginoides. One 5 kg toothfish may provide enough energy for a 500 kg squid to survive for up to 200 days. As the squid grows older it moves into deeper and darker waters, possibly to reduce the possibility of it being detected, and also to reduce predation pressure. Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni is thought to be an ambush predator that depends on its hooks to catch prey. Because of its size and probable energy intake, it most likely does not expend energy actively chasing its prey.

Animal Foods: fish

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore )

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Associations

Currently, little if anything is known about its distinct role in the ecosystem.

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The sperm whale, Physeter catodon is a known predator of M. hamiltoni. Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni may prey on or fight with P. catodon.

Known Predators:

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni is likely a visual predator due to its extremely large eye which can reach up to about 30 cm in diameter.

Communication Channels: visual ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: pheromones

Perception Channels: visual ; chemical

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Life Cycle

Not much is known about M. hamiltoni development because no adult organisms have ever been captured or observed.

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Life History

The young stages were described by McSweeny (1970). Hooks first appear on the arms at about 45 mm ML.


Figure. Top - Dorsal view of an advanced paralarva of M. hamiltoni, 23 mm ML. Bottom - Ventral view of a juvenile of M. hamiltoni, 86 mm ML. Drawings from Voss (1980, p. 395, fig. 10 c, b).

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Life Expectancy

No adult M. hamiltoni specimens have been discovered so the lifespan of the organism is currently unknown.

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Reproduction

Upon dissection of a mature male adult, there seems to be no hectocotylus, which in typical squids is the organ of sperm storage and transfer and is found at the end of one of the male’s tentacles. Instead, it is speculated that M. hamiltoni males have penises.

Little is known about the reproductive behavior of M. hamiltoni because no specimens have been observed live. In general, many squids have precopulatory rituals, and males seize females with their tentacles prior to mating. Fertilization is likely internal.

Key Reproductive Features: fertilization (Internal )

Little is known about the reproductive behavior of M. hamiltoni because no specimens have been observed live.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACATTATATTTTATCTTTGGTATCTGAGCAGGATTATTAGGTACTTCCTTA---AGATTAATAATCCGTACTGAATTAGGACAACCAGGGTCGCTACTAAATGAC---GATCAGTTATACAATGTAGTAGTTACCGCCCATGGATTTATTATAATTTTTTTTCTAGTTATACCAATTATAATTGGAGGTTTCGGGAACTGACTAGTACCTCTAATA---CTAGGCGCCCCAGATATAGCATTTCCGCGTATAAATAATATAAGTTTTTGACTTCTTCCTCCTTCCTTGACACTTTTATTAGCATCTTCTGCTGTAGAAAGAGGAGCCGGAACAGGTTGAACAGTTTACCCCCCTTTATCTAGAAATTTGTCTCATGCTGGCCCTTCTGTAGACCTT---GCTATTTTCTCACTTCATTTGGCTGGTGTCTCCTCTATTCTTGGAGCAATTAATTTCATCACAACTATTTTAAATATACGTTGAGAAGGACTTCAAATAGAACGATTACCTCTCTTTGCTTGATCTGTTTTCATCACCGCAATTCTTCTTCTTTTAGCACTCCCAGTATTAGCTGGA---GCTATTACTATACTATTAACCGACCGAAACTTTAACACAACCTTTTTTGACCCAAGGGGGGGTGGGGACCCCATCCTATACCAACATTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Queensland Museum
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Not enough is known on colossal squid populations to determine its conservation status.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Vecchione, M., Young, R. & Böhm, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni has a wide geographic distribution in deep water where it is unlikely to be impacted by human activities. As an Antarctic species it is also protected by the Antarctic Treaty System. It is also not currently targeted by fisheries. As a result, it has been assessed as Least Concern. However, more research is still needed on its ecology and biology.
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Population

Population
The population size of this species is unknown, although total biomass reserves were previously estimated at 90 million tonnes (Roper and Jereb 2010).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are unknown. The current bycatch take is minimal.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures in place. Further research is required on the distribution, life history and ecology of this species, to assess if threats such as bycatch have significant impacts on the species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

There are no known adverse affects of M. hamiltoni on humans. Because of its remote range, it is unlikely that this species has much of a negative economic effect on humans.

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Not much is known about this species and any benefits that it might have on humans yet.

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Wikipedia

Colossal squid

Not to be confused with giant squid.

The colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni, from Greek mesos (middle), nycho (claw, nail), and teuthis (squid)), sometimes called the Antarctic or giant cranch squid, is believed to be the largest squid species in terms of mass. It is the only known member of the genus Mesonychoteuthis. It is known from only a few specimens, and current estimates put its maximum size at 12–14 m (39–46 ft) long,[1] based on analysis of smaller and immature specimens, making it the largest known invertebrate.

Morphology[edit]

Unlike the giant squid, whose arms and tentacles only have suckers lined with small teeth, the colossal squid's limbs are also equipped with sharp hooks: some swivelling, others three-pointed.[2] Its body is wider and stouter, and therefore heavier, than that of the giant squid. Colossal squid are believed to have longer mantles than giant squid, but shorter tentacles.

The squid exhibits abyssal gigantism. The beak of M. hamiltoni is the largest known of any squid, and more robust than that of Architeuthis (giant squid). The colossal squid also has the largest eyes documented in the animal kingdom; a partly collapsed specimen measured 27 cm (11 in).[3][4]

Distribution[edit]

The squid's known range extends thousands of kilometres northward from Antarctica to southern South America, southern South Africa, and the southern tip of New Zealand, making it primarily an inhabitant of the entire circumantarctic Southern Ocean.[citation needed]

Ecology and life history[edit]

Little is known about the life of this creature, but it is believed to feed on prey such as chaetognatha, large fish such as the Patagonian toothfish, and other squid in the deep ocean using bioluminescence. The colossal squid is thought to have a slow metabolic rate, needing only around 30 grams (1.1 oz) of prey daily.[5] Estimates of its energetic demands suggest it is a slow-moving ambush predator, using its large eyes primarily for predator detection rather than active hunting.[5][6]

Based on capture depths of a few specimens, and beaks found in sperm whale stomachs, the adult colossal squid ranges at least to a depth of 2.2 km (7,200 ft), and juveniles can go as deep as 1 km (3,300 ft). It is believed to be sexually dimorphic, with mature females generally being much larger than mature males, as is common in many species of invertebrates.

The squid's method of reproduction has not been observed, although some data on their reproduction can be inferred from anatomy. Since males lack an organ called a hectocotylus (an arm used in other cephalopods to transfer a spermatophore to the female), they probably use a penis instead, which would be used to directly implant sperm into females.

Many sperm whales have scars on their backs, believed to be caused by the hooks of colossal squid. Colossal squid are a major prey item for sperm whales in the Antarctic; 14% of the squid beaks found in the stomachs of these sperm whales are those of the colossal squid, which indicates that colossal squid make up 77% of the biomass consumed by these whales.[7] Many other animals also feed on colossal squid, including beaked whales (such as the southern bottlenose whale), pilot whales, southern elephant seals, Patagonian toothfish, sleeper sharks (Somniosus antarcticus), and albatrosses (e.g., the wandering and sooty albatrosses). However, beaks from mature adults have only been recovered from large predators (i.e. sperm whales and sleeper sharks), while the other predators only eat juveniles or young adults.[8]

History[edit]

The species was first discovered in the form of two tentacles found in the stomach of a sperm whale in 1925.[9] In 1981 a Russian trawler in the Ross Sea, off the coast of Antarctica, caught a large squid with a total length of 4 m (13 ft), which was later identified as an immature female of M. hamiltoni.[10] In 2003 a complete specimen of a subadult female was found near the surface with a total length of 6 m (20 ft) and a mantle length of 2.5 m (8.2 ft).[11]

In 2005 a specimen was captured at a depth of 1,625 m (5,331 ft) while taking a toothfish from a longline off South Georgia Island. Although the mantle was not brought aboard, the mantle length was estimated at over 2.5 m (8.2 ft), and the tentacles measured 2.3 m (7.5 ft). The animal is thought to have weighed between 150 and 200 kg (330 and 440 lb).[12]

The largest recorded specimen was captured in 2007 by a New Zealand fishing boat off Antarctica. It was initially estimated to measure 10 m (33 ft) in length and weigh 450 kg (990 lb). The squid was taken back to New Zealand for scientific study.[13] A study on the specimen later showed its actual weight was 495 kg (1,091 lb), but it only measured 4.2 m (14 ft) in total length as a result of the tentacles' shrinking post mortem.[14]

Largest known specimen[edit]

See also: Cephalopod size
This specimen, caught in early 2007, is the largest cephalopod ever recorded. Here it is shown in its live state during capture, with the delicate red skin still intact and the mantle characteristically inflated.

On February 22, 2007, authorities in New Zealand announced the largest known colossal squid had been captured. The specimen weighed 495 kg (1,091 lb) and was initially estimated to measure 10 m (33 ft) in total length. Fishermen on the vessel San Aspiring, owned by the Sanford Seafood Company, caught the animal in the freezing Antarctic waters of the Ross Sea. It was brought to the surface as it fed on an Antarctic toothfish that had been caught off a long line. It would not let go of its prey and could not be removed from the line by the fishermen, so they decided to catch it instead. They managed to envelop it in a net, haul it aboard, and freeze it. The specimen eclipsed the previous largest find in 2003 by about 195 kg (430 lb),[15][16] although it is still considerably smaller than some estimates have predicted. The specimen was frozen in a cubic metre of water and transported to the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, New Zealand's national museum.[17][18] Media reports suggested scientists at the museum were considering using a giant microwave to defrost the squid because defrosting it at room temperature would take days and it would likely rot on the outside while the core remained frozen.[19] However, they later opted for the more conventional approach of thawing the specimen in a bath of salt water.[20][21] After thawing, the squid measured only 4.2 m (14 ft) in total length, with the tentacles having shrunk significantly.[14] Although initially thought to be a male, closer inspection of the specimen showed it to be a female.[4]

Defrosting and dissection, April–May 2008[edit]

Thawing and dissection of the specimen took place at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa[20] under the direction of senior biologist Chris Paulin, with technician Mark Fenwick, Dutch marine biologist and toxicologist Olaf Blaauw, AUT biologist Steve O'Shea, Tsunemi Kubodera, and AUT biologist Kat Bolstad.

Parts of the specimen have been examined:

  • The beak is considerably smaller than some found in the stomachs of sperm whales,[22][23] suggesting other colossal squid are much larger than this one.[22][23]
  • The eye is 27 cm (11 in) wide, with a lens 12 cm (4.7 in) across. This is the largest eye of any known animal.[3] These measurements are of the partly collapsed specimen; when living the eye was probably 30[4] to 40 cm (12 to 16 in) across.[24]
  • Inspection of the specimen with an endoscope revealed ovaries containing thousands of eggs.[4]

Exhibition[edit]

The specimen on display at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa

The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa is displaying this specimen in an exhibition which opened on December 13, 2008, and is still running as of June 2014.[25]

Second Specimen[edit]

In August 2014, Te Papa received a second colossal squid, captured in early 2014.[26] The specimen was also female, was 3.5 metres long and weighed approximately 350kg.[27]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Anderton, H.J. 2007. Amazing specimen of world's largest squid in NZ. New Zealand Government website.
  2. ^ Te Papa: Hooks and Suckers. Blog.tepapa.govt.nz (2008-04-30). Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  3. ^ a b Scientists focus on colossal squid's eyes Radio New Zealand.[dead link]
  4. ^ a b c d Richard Black "Colossal squid's big eye revealed". BBC News, April 30, 2008.
  5. ^ a b Rosa, R. & B.A. Seibel 2010. Slow pace of life of the Antarctic colossal squid. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, published online on April 20, 2010. doi:10.1017/S0025315409991494
  6. ^ Bourton, J. 2010. Monster colossal squid is slow not fearsome predator. BBC Earth News, May 7, 2010.
  7. ^ Clarke, M.R. (1980). "Cephalopoda in the diet of sperm whales of the southern hemisphere and their bearing on sperm whale biology". Discovery Reports 37: 1–324.
  8. ^ Cherel, Y. & G. Duhamel 2004. Antarctic jaws: cephalopod prey of sharks in Kerguelen waters. PDF (531 KB) Deep-Sea Research I 51: 17–31.
  9. ^ Robson, G.C. 1925. On Mesonychoteuthis, a new genus of oegopsid, Cephalopoda. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9, 16: 272–277.
  10. ^ Ellis, R. 1998. The Search for the Giant Squid. The Lyons Press.
  11. ^ Kim Griggs "Super squid surfaces in Antarctic". BBC News, April 2, 2003.
  12. ^ "Very Rare Giant Squid Caught Alive" ''South Georgia Newsletter''. Sgisland.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  13. ^ "NZ fishermen pull monster squid from Antarctic deep", BBC
  14. ^ a b Atkinson, Kent (May 1, 2008). "Size matters on 'squid row' (+photos, video)". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  15. ^ Marks, Kathy (March 23, 2007). "NZ's colossal squid to be microwaved". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  16. ^ "New giant squid predator found". BBC News. January 8, 2004. Retrieved 14 February 2007. 
  17. ^ "Colossal squid may be headed for the oven in New Zealand", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), March 22, 2007.
  18. ^ Kim Griggs, "Colossal squid's headache for science", BBC News, March 15, 2007.
  19. ^ Record Giant Squid Put on Ice. The Associated Press (via Life Science). 22 March 2007
  20. ^ a b Te Papa's Specimen: The Thawing and Examination. Tepapa.govt.nz. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  21. ^ Richard Black "Colossal squid out of the freezer". BBC News, April 26, 2008.
  22. ^ a b Thawing colossal squid continues to reveal information Radio New Zealand.
  23. ^ a b Massive squid may be just a babe The Star, South Africa.
  24. ^ World's biggest squid reveals 'beach ball' eyes AFP, via Google.
  25. ^ "The Colossal Squid Exhibition - Exhibition". tepapa.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-03-15. "The colossal squid is due for a check-up in March this year. We'll assess her condition and decide how long she can safely stay on display. She'll be with us until at least August 2012" 
  26. ^ "Is it a boy? Te Papa gets new colossal squid". 11 August 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  27. ^ "Scientists Found Only The Second Intact Colossal Squid — Here's What It Looks Like". 16 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

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