European hackberry (Celtis australis), also known as European Nettle tree, Mediterranean Hackberry and Lote tree, is a medium to large-sized deciduous tree in the family Ulmaceae. Native to France, India, Italy, Pakistan, Turkey, and the former Yugoslavia, C. australis is a tree of sub-tropical to temperate climates.
C. australis has a straight stem up to 25 m tall and 60 cm dbh (diameter at breast height); crown spreading; bark bluish-grey, smooth or with horizontal wrinkles when older; branchlets and twigs smooth and greenish-grey; leaves are alternate, obliquely ovate to lanceolate, 7-13 cm long and 3-7 cm wide, base serrate or sometimes smooth, strongly 3-neved. Flowers are small, greenish, in axillary shoots on year-old twigs. Fruits are berry-like "drupes", ovoid or cylindrical, 6-12 mm long, yellow then purple or black, fleshy with one white seed.
The fruit of C. australis is reported to have been the Lotus of the ancients, whose fruit Herodotus, Dioscorides, and Theophrastus described as sweet, pleasant, and wholesome. Homer's Ulysses refers to the ‘Lotus-eaters’ and the ‘lotus’ in Odyssey, another reference to the fruit of this tree.
Habitat and Ecology
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Celtis australis
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Species With Barcodes: 1
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Celtis australis, commonly known as the European nettle tree, Mediterranean hackberry, lote tree, or honeyberry, is a deciduous tree native to southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia Minor. The tree was introduced to England in 1796.
The tree can grow to 25 m in height, though 10 m is more common in cooler climates. The bark is smooth and grey, almost elephantine.  The alternate leaves are narrow and sharp-toothed, rugose above and tomentose below, 5–15 cm long and dark grey/green throughout the year, fading to a pale yellow before falling in autumn. The apetalous wind-pollinated flowers are perfect (:hermaphrodite, having both male and female organs), small and green, either singly or in small clusters. The fruit is a small, dark-purple berry-like drupe, 1 cm wide, hanging in short clusters, and are extremely popular with birds and other wildlife.
C. australis in Panchkhal VDC, Nepal
The plant prefers light well-drained (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, including those nutritionally poor; it can tolerate drought but not shade. The Mediterranean climate is especially suitable for the plant.
English: the honeyberry tree, European hackberry, hackberry, nettle tree, mediterranean hackberry; French: micocoulier; German: Zurgelbaum; Hindi: ku, batkar, khark, khirk, roku; Italian: perlaro, bagolaro; Nepali: khari; Spanish: almez, lodón, ladón, ojaranzo, hojaranzo; Serbian: копривић, коштела, кошћела, костјела. Trade names: nettle wood, brimji. Türkce: çitlembik
It is often planted as an ornamental as it is resistant to air pollution and long-living. The fruit of this tree is sweet and edible, and can be eaten raw or cooked. The leaves and fruit are astringent, lenitive and stomachic. Decoction of both leaves and fruit is used in the treatment of amenorrhoea, heavy menstrual and intermenstrual bleeding and colic. The decoction can also be used to astringe the mucous membranes in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and peptic ulcers. A yellow dye is obtained from the bark. the wood is very tough, pliable, durable, and widely used by turners; the flexible thin shoots are used as walking sticks.
Celtis australis is supposed to have been the Lotus of the ancients, whose fruit Herodotus, Dioscorides, and Theophrastus describe as sweet, pleasant, and wholesome. Homer has Ulysses refer to the "Lotus-eaters" and the "lotus" in Odyssey, Book IX. The fruit and its effects are described in Tennyson's poem The Lotos-Eaters.
The leaves of Celtis australis are a rich source of flavonoid C-glycosides. Young leaves of Celtis australis from Northern Italy were found to contain the highest amounts of phenolics per gram dry weight. Amounts rapidly decreased until mid-May and after this date the level of phenolics fluctuated but showed no discernible trend. This general trend of high amounts of phenolics in the early growing season and a fast decline affected both caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids.
- 1885 illustration from Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany
- Bailey, L.H.; Bailey, E.Z.; the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan, New York.
- Hillier Nurseries Ltd. (1977). Hilliers' Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 4th edition, p.70. David & Charles, Newton Abbott, UK. ISBN 0-7153-7460-5
- More, D. & White, J. (2003).Trees of Britain & Northern Europe, p. 417. Cassells, London. ISBN 0-304-36192-5.
- Celtis australis (Ulmaceae): Nettle Wood, Brimji.
- Keeler, Harriet L. (1900). Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. New York: Charles Scriber's Sons. pp. 249–252.
- Spitaler, R; Gurschler, S; Ellmerer, E; Schubert, B; Sgarbossa, M; Zidorn, C (2009). "Flavonoids from Celtis australis (Cannabaceae)". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 37: 120–121. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2008.11.020. ISSN 0305-1978.
- Kaltenhauser, M; Ellmerer, EP; Zidorn, C (2010). "Rhamnopyranosylvitexin derivatives from Celtis australis". Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society (Belgrade, Serbia) (Free full text)doi:10.2298/JSC090817049K. ISSN 1820-7421. 75: 733–738.
- Sommavilla, V; Haidacher-Gasser, D; Sgarbossa, M; Zidorn, C (2012). "Seasonal variation in phenolics in leaves of Celtis australis (Cannabaceae)". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 41: 110–114. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2011.12.028. ISSN 0305-1978.