Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This perennial wildflower is consists of a low rosette of basal leaves spanning about 6" across, from which one or more flowering stalks develop. The basal leaves are up to 3½" long and 3½" across; they are ovate-cordate, cordate, to nearly orbicular in shape and their margins are crenate-serrate. Leaf bases are indented, while leaf tips are rounded to bluntly pointed. The upper leaf surface is medium green and glabrous, while the lower surface is pale-medium green and glabrous (or nearly so). Leaf venation is mostly palmate. The petioles are up to 4" long, light green, and glabrous. Solitary flowers are produced at the tips of pedicels up to 7" long. The erect to ascending pedicels are light green to light purplish green and glabrous. Each flower is about ¾" across, consisting of 5 medium to dark blue-violet petals (rarely white), 5 light green sepals, and the reproductive organs. The petals are elliptic-obovate in shape and about twice the length of the sepals. The 2 lateral petals have short white hairs with swollen tips near the throat of the flower. The lowermost petal has a patch of white with radiating purple veins in the front, while in the back it has a short stout nectar spur. The sepals are linear-lanceolate and glabrous; they usually have pointed auricles (eared basal lobes) up to 4 mm. long. The blooming period occurs from mid- to late spring for about 1 month. Afterwards, successfully fertilized flowers are replaced by seed capsules about ½" long that are light green and ovoid-oblongoid in shape. In addition to these flowers, cleistogamous (self-fertile) flowers are produced that lack showy petals. The cleistogamous flowers are produced on ascending pedicels during the summer. At maturity, the capsules of both types of flowers split open into 3 sections, to eject their seeds. Individual seeds are about 2.5 mm. in length, globoid in shape, and dark-colored. The root system consists of a crown with fibrous roots and rhizomes.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Marsh Violet is occasional in NE Illinois, while the in the rest of the state it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include marshes, bogs, swamps, seeps, and borders of rocky streams. This violet is found in both sandy and non-sandy wetlands in both shaded and unshaded areas.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Viola cucullata var. microtitis Brainerd:
Canada (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Viola cucullata Aiton:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Marsh Violet is occasional in NE Illinois, while the in the rest of the state it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include marshes, bogs, swamps, seeps, and borders of rocky streams. This violet is found in both sandy and non-sandy wetlands in both shaded and unshaded areas.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Marsh Violet in Illinois

Viola obliqua (Marsh Violet)
(Also referred to as Viola cucullata; bees usually suck nectar, but sometimes collect pollen; Robertson regarded many bees as non-pollinating, as indicated below; bee flies suck nectar and are non-pollinating; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomous sn np, Bombus griseocallis sn np, Bombus impatiens sn np, Bombus pensylvanica sn np; Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora ursina sn np; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn np; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia belfragii sn, Synhalonia speciosa sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada affabilis sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia bucephala bucephala sn, Osmia collinsiae sn, Osmia lignaria lignaria sn, Osmia pumila sn cp fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus confusus sn np, Lasioglossum cressonii sn np, Lasioglossum foxii sn; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena carlini sn, Andrena violae sn cp fq olg

Flies
Bombyliidae: Bombylius major sn np, Bombylius pulchellus sn np

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Vanessa virginiensis sn; Pieridae: Colias philodice sn, Pieris rapae sn

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Erynnis brizo sn, Erynnis juvenalis sn, Erynnis martialis sn

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Faunal Associations

The floral nectar of Marsh Violet attracts bumblebees, mason bees (Osmia spp.), Halictid bees, Andrenid bees, bee flies (Bombyliidae), butterflies, and skippers (Robertson, 1929). Some of the bees also collect pollen. An oligolectic bee, Andrena violae, visits the flowers of Marsh Violet and other Viola spp. (violets). The caterpillars of several Fritillary butterflies feed on the foliage of violets primarily in open areas
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Viola cucullata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun to light shade, wet to moist conditions, and soil containing loam, silty loam, or sandy loam with organic matter.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Wikipedia

Viola cucullata

Viola cucullata (Hooded Blue Violet, Marsh Blue Violet or Purple Violet) is a species of the genus Viola native to eastern North America, from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Minnesota, and south to Georgia.[1]

It is a low-growing perennial herbaceous plant up to 20 cm tall. The leaves form a basal cluster; they are simple, up to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) broad, with an entire margin and a long petiole. The flowers are violet, dark blue and occasionally white. with five petals. The fruit is a capsule 10–15 mm long, which splits into three sections at maturity to release the numerous small seeds.[2]

The purple violet is the provincial flower of New Brunswick.[3]

The purple violet is also one of the official flowers of the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Viola cucullata
  2. ^ Northern Ontario Plant Database: Viola cucullata
  3. ^ Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. 
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