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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Herbs, shrubs, climbers or trees, unarmed or spiny, often stellate-hairy. Stipules 0, but Solanum mauritianum has prominent pseudostipules. Leaves alternate, entire, lobed to pinnatisect or pinnate. Inflorescences often extra-axillary, mostly racemose or umbellate cymes or terminal panicles. Calyx (4-)5-10-toothed or lobed, not or only slightly enlarging in fruit. Corolla often rotate, (4-)5(-6)-lobed, white, yellow, blue or purple. Filaments shorter than anthers; anthers often connivent, dehiscing by apical pores, Ovary 2(-4)-locular. Fruit a ± spherical berry.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Description

 Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines, with or without prickles, glabrous or pubescent with unbranched or branched (including stellate), often glandular hairs. Leaves alternate or paired and frequently unequal in size, simple to pinnately lobed or compound, petiolate or sessile, without stipules, but sometimes with “pseudostipules” (Potato clade). Inflorescences cymose, branched or unbranched. Flowers usually perfect, (4-) 5-merous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic; calyx campanulate, sometimes accrescent in fruit, corolla rotate, campanulate, stellate, or urceolate, white, green, yellow, pink, or purple; stamens equal or unequal, the filaments generally short and inserted at the corolla base, the anthers basifixed, equal or unequal, blunt or tapered toward apex, opening by terminal pores, these sometimes expanding into longitudinal slits, or introrsely longitudinally dehiscent with age in sect. Lycopersicon; ovary 2-carpellate; ovules many; style articulated at base or above the base, usually slender; stigma capitate to elongate-clavate. Fruit a berry, usually fleshy but occasionally dry, usually many-seeded, the seeds often flattened; embryo curved, embedded in abundant endosperm. Chromosome number: n = 12, 23, 24, 48.
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© Sandra Knapp

Source: PhytoKeys

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Solanum

Herbs, shrubs, trees, or herbaceous or woody vines, usually with spines or prickles, glabrous or pubescent with simple or stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, simple or compound, entire or lobate; stipules absent. Flowers actinomorphic, 5-merous, bisexual or rarely unisexual, produced in racemes or solitary. Calyx deeply lobate; corolla usually rotate, with the limb pentagonal; stamens 5, the filaments shorter than the anthers, the anthers concrescent, dehiscent by terminal pores; ovary superior, of two connate carpels, the placentation axile, with numerous ovules, the style filiform, the stigmas bifid. Fruit a berry with numerous seeds inside. A cosmopolitan genus, of approximately 1,400 species.

  • Bernadello, L.M. and A. T. Hunziker. 1987. A synoptical revision of Solandra (Solanaceae). Nord. J. Bot. 7: 639-652.

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / parasite
underground tuber of Orobanche ramosa parasitises root of Solanum
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Synchytrium endobioticum causes gall of tuber of Solanum

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Trichoderma anamorph of Trichoderma longibrachiatum is saprobic on dead leaf of Solanum

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Pheromone mimic repels aphids: South American potato
 

Chemicals emitted from a wild South American potato species repels aphids because it mimics the aphids' alarm pheromone.

   
  "A wild species of South American potato discharges a message-chemical, a pheromone, which resembles that emitted by aphids when they are under attack. So those aphids never land on it." (Attenborough 1995:68)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
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© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

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Functional adaptation

Internal pressure provides support: potato
 

Cellular structure of potato creates high internal pressure.

 
  The cellular structure of a potato holds high internal pressure, which is exerted evenly on the internal surface of the potato skin. (Courtesy of the Biomimicry Guild)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
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Source: AskNature

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:1407
Specimens with Sequences:1625
Specimens with Barcodes:971
Species:505
Species With Barcodes:472
Public Records:921
Public Species:443
Public BINs:0
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum Espinoza5751

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum cf. pseudoquina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum Espinoza5665

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data: Solanum mitlense/lanceolatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum mitlense/lanceolatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data: Solanum erianthum/lanceolatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum erianthum/lanceolatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data: Solanum anomalum/distichum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum anomalum/distichum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Solanum lasiocarpum/violaceum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum lasiocarpum/violaceum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Solanum Jorge175

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Root: Roots are boiled and the water drunk for intestinal cramps, by the Guyana Patamona. Fruit: Cooked and consumed by diabetics. A bitter variety of the fruit is eaten with oil and pepper to remedy hemorrhoids.

  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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Wikipedia

Solanum

For other uses, see Solanum (disambiguation).
"Horsenettle" and variants redirect here. If used for a particular species, this name usually applies to the Carolina Horsenettle (S. carolinense).

Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include two food crops of the highest economic importance, the potato and the tomato. It also contains the nightshades and horsenettles, as well as numerous plants cultivated for their ornamental flowers and fruit.

Solanum species show a wide range of growing habits, such as annual and perennials, vines, subshrubs, shrubs, and small trees. Many formerly independent genera like Lycopersicon (the tomatoes) and Cyphomandra are now included in Solanum as subgenera or sections. Thus, the genus today contains roughly 1,500-2,000 species.

Name[edit]

The generic name was first used by Pliny the Elder (23-79) for a plant also known as strychnos, most likely S. nigrum. Its derivation is uncertain, possibly stemming from the Latin word sol, meaning "sun," referring to its status as a plant of the sun. Another possibility is that the root was solare, meaning "to soothe," or solamen, meaning "a comfort," which would refer to the soothing effects of the plant upon ingestion.[2]

Nightshades[edit]

The species usually, most commonly called nightshade in North America and Britain, is Solanum dulcamara, also called bittersweet or woody nightshade. Its foliage and egg-shaped red berries are poisonous, the active principle being solanine, which can cause convulsions and death if taken in large doses. The black nightshade (S. nigrum) is also generally considered poisonous, but its fully ripened fruit and foliage are cooked and eaten in some areas. The deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) is not in the Solanum genus, but is a member of the wider Solanaceae family.

Food crops[edit]

Most parts of the plants, especially the green parts and unripe fruit, are poisonous to humans (although not necessarily to other animals), but many species in the genus bear some edible parts, such as fruits, leaves, or tubers. Three crops in particular have been bred and harvested for consumption by humans for centuries, and are now cultivated on a global scale:

Other species are significant food crops regionally, such as Ethiopian eggplant and gilo (S. aethiopicum), naranjilla or lulo (S. quitoense), turkey berry (S. torvum), pepino (S. muricatum), or the "bush tomatoes" (several Australian species).

Ornamentals[edit]

The species most widely seen in cultivation as ornamental plants are:-

Medicine[edit]

While most medical relevance of Solanum is due to poisonings which are not uncommon and may be fatal, several species are locally used in folk medicine, particularly by native peoples who have long employed them. Giant devil's-fig (S. chrysotrichum) has been shown to be an effective treatment for seborrhoeic dermatitis in one preliminary study.[4]

Ecology[edit]

Solanum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths) - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Solanum.

Systematics[edit]

The genus was established by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.[5] Its subdivision has always been problematic, but slowly some sort of consensus is being achieved.

The following list is a provisional lineup of the genus' traditional subdivisions, together with some notable species.[5] Many of the subgenera and sections might not be valid; they are used here provisionally as the phylogeny of this genus is not fully resolved yet and many species have not been reevaluated.

Cladistic analyses of DNA sequence data suggests that the present subdivisions and rankings are largely invalid. Far more subgenera would seem to warrant recognition, with Leptostemonum being the only one that can at present be clearly subdivided into sections. Notably, it includes as a major lineage several members of the traditional sections Cyphomandropsis and the old genus Cyphomandra.[1]

Subgenus Bassovia[edit]

Section Allophylla

Section Cyphomandropsis

Section Pachyphylla

Subgenus Leptostemonum[edit]

Section Acanthophora

Section Androceras: 12 spp.[1]

  • Series Androceras
  • Series Violaceiflorum
  • Series Pacificum

Section Anisantherum
Section Campanulata
Section Crinitum
Section Croatianum
Section Erythrotrichum

Section Graciliflorum[verification needed]
Section Herposolanum

Section Irenosolanum

Section Ischyracanthum
Section Lasiocarpa

Section Melongena

Section Micracantha

Section Monodolichopus
Section Nycterium
Section Oliganthes

Section Persicariae

Section Polytrichum
Section Pugiunculifera
Section Somalanum
Section Torva

Subgenus Lyciosolanum[edit]

Subgenus Solanum sensu stricto[edit]

Currant Tomato (S. pimpinellifolium) fruit
Andean black potatoes (S. tuberosum)
Turkey Berry (S. torvum) flowers

Section Afrosolanum
Section Anarrhichomenum

Section Archaesolanum

Section Basarthrum

Section Benderianum
Section Brevantherum

Section Dulcamara

Section Herpystichum
Section Holophylla

Section Juglandifolia

Section Lemurisolanum
Section Lycopersicoides

Section Lycopersicon

Section Macronesiotes
Section Normania
Section Petota

Section Pteroidea
Section Quadrangulare
Section Regmandra
Section Solanum

Other notable species[edit]

Forked Nightshade (S. furcatum)
Bluewitch Nightshade (S. umbelliferum) flowers

Formerly placed here[edit]

Lycianthes rantonnetii and its congeners were often placed in Solanum

Some plants of yet other genera also were placed in Solanum in former times:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Solanum L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-09-01. Retrieved 2013-07-15. 
  2. ^ Quattrocchi, U. (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 4 R-Z. USA: Taylor and Francis. p. 2058. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3. 
  3. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  4. ^ Herrera-Arellano, A.; Jiménez-Ferrer, E.; Vega-Pimentel, A. M.; Martínez-Rivera, M. de L.; Hernández-Hernández, M.; Zamilpa, A.; Tortoriello, J. (2004). "Clinical and mycological evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness of Solanum chrysotrichum standardized extract on patients with Pityriasis capitis (dandruff). A double blind and randomized clinical trial controlled with ketoconazole". Planta Medica 70 (6): 483–488. doi:10.1055/s-2004-827145. PMID 15241887. 
  5. ^ a b "Solanum Phylogeny". Solanaceae Source. Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  6. ^ Tepe, E. J.; Ridley, G.; Bohs, L. (2012). "A new species of Solanum named for Jeanne Baret, an overlooked contributor to the history of botany" (pdf). PhytoKeys 2012 (8): 37–47. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.8.2101. PMC 3254248. 
  7. ^ a b Anderson, G. J.; Martine, C. T.; Prohens, J.; Nuez, F. (2006). "Solanum perlongistylum and S. catilliflorum, New Endemic Peruvian Species of Solanum, Section Basarthrum, Are Close Relatives of the Domesticated Pepino, S. muricatum". Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 16 (2): 161–167. doi:10.3417/1055-3177(2006)16[161:SPASCN]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1055-3177. 
  8. ^ Ochoa, C. M. (2006). "Solanum tergosericeum (Solanaceae sect. Basarthrum): A new species from Peru". Phytologia 88 (2): 212–215. 
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Notes

Common Names

Surinam: antroewa. Guyana Patamona: muk-ru-go-raie-yik

  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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In Reference 195 (cited), this plant is named Solanum macrocarpon, which is a name variously used, for example, by Linnaeus for a Mascarene plant, by Molina for a Chilean plant, and applied by Pavon ex Dunal to a Peruvian plant which is now known as Solanum quitoense.

  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Schultes, R.E. and R.F. Raffauf. 1990. The Healing Forest: Medicinal and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia. 484 pp. Portland, Oregon: Dioscorides Press.

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