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Naegleria gruberi

Naegleria gruberi is a free-living amoebae widely distributed in soil and freshwater habitats throughout the world characteristically undergoing transformation between the amoebae and flagellated form, and constitutes a model system for the pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Together with the distantly related Euglenozoa (which include parasitic trypanosomes) and Jakobid flagellates, Naegleria gruberi  and N. fowleri are members of the ancient and ecologically diverse clade termed ‘‘JEH’’ for JakobidsEuglenozoa - Heterolobosea. The thermophilic N. fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans, which almost invariably leads to death. Cases of PAM are reported worldwide and are related to swimming in warm water, whereby the pathogen enters the brain via the nose.

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