Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hamamelis virginiana subsp. vernalis F.G. Meyer:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 1997. Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. 3: i–xxiii, 1–590. In Fl. N. Amer. Oxford University Press, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/24627 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hamamelis vernalis Sarg.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Ark., Mo., Okla.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: MO, AR, eastern OK, TX.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs , 2-4 m, stoloniferous, with widespreading roots. Leaves often persistent in winter; petioles 7-15(-18) mm. Leaf blade mostly obovate, 7-13 × 6.7-13 cm, base narrowed to somewhat cuneate, rarely rounded and weakly oblique, apex acute or rounded; surfaces often abaxially glaucous. Flowers appearing in winter on naked branches, distinctly fragrant; calyx often adaxially deep purple; petals reddish or deep red to orange, occasionally yellow, 7-10 mm; staminodes not dilated or slightly so. Capsules 10-15 mm. Seeds 7-9 mm. 2 n = 24.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Hamamelis vernalis var. tomentella (Rehder) E. J. Palmer
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Ecology

Habitat

Gravel bars and rocky stream banks, developing thickets, rarely on wooded hillsides; 100-400m.
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Comments: Moist woods, margins and shores of streams.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering winter (Dec-Mar).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hamamelis vernalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hamamelis vernalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: This shrub seems to be common within range. More EO information needed.

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Wikipedia

Hamamelis vernalis

Hamamelis vernalis is a species of Witch-hazel native to the Ozark Plateau in central North America, in Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.[1]

Flowers and old seed capsules

It is a deciduous large shrub growing to 4 m tall, spreading by stoloniferous root sprouts. The leaves are oval, 7–13 cm long and 6.7–13 cm broad, cuneate to slightly oblique at the base, acute or rounded at the apex, with a wavy-toothed or shallowly lobed margin, and a short, stout petiole 7–15 mm long; they are dark green above, and glaucous beneath, and often persist into the early winter. The flowers are deep to bright red, rarely yellow, with four ribbon-shaped petals 7–10 mm long and four short stamens, and grow in clusters; flowering begins in mid winter and continues until early spring (the Latin word vernalis means spring-flowering).[2] The fruit is a hard woody capsule 10–15 mm long, which splits explosively at the apex at maturity one year after pollination, ejecting the two shiny black seeds up to 10 m distant from the parent plant. Although often occurring with the related Hamamelis virginiana, it does not intergrade, and can be distinguished by its flowering in late winter (December to March in its native range), not fall.[1][3]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

H. vernalis is valued in cultivation for its strongly scented flowers appearing in late winter, when little else is growing. Several cultivars have been selected, mainly for variation in flower color, including 'Carnea' (pink flowers), 'Red Imp' (petals red with orange tips), and 'Squib' (vivid yellow flowers).[1][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Flora of North America: Hamamelis vernalis
  2. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315. 
  3. ^ Flora of North America: Hamamelis
  4. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
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Notes

Comments

In the original description of Hamamelis vernalis , C. S. Sargent erroneously figured the flowers of H . virginiana (plate 156) and failed to mention either the fragrance or the distinctive color range of the flowers in H . vernalis . He stated only that the petals were light yellow. 

 Hamamelis vernalis is restricted to the Ozark Plateau of Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arkansas, often in close proximity with the more widespread H . virginiana . It is difficult to explain the restricted occurrence of H . vernalis in the Ozark area, although ancient geology of the area, with predominently Paleozoic rocks, makes it a well-known refugium. Hamamelis vernalis and H . virginiana are sympatric, sometimes growing within 30 m of each other, yet their identity is maintained, and the two species are easily distinguished through a composite of diagnostic characters (J. L. Bradford and D. L. Marsh 1977). Hamamelis vernalis shows an unusual color range of the flowers. Plants growing side by side commonly differ in flower color, varying from orange to deep red or, occasionally, deep yellow. Sometimes flower color varies on the same plant; e.g., petals that are initially deep red can later fade to yellow.

Hamamelis vernalis is not well known in cultivation and is infrequently planted. It is desirable for the fragrance and color variation of the flowers.

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