The species is thought to be introduced in Ecuador (N.P. Taylor pers. comm. 2011).
Localities documented in Tropicos sources
United States (North America)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1103
- Gibbs Russell, G. E., W. G. Welman, E. Reitief, K. L. Immelman, G. Germishuizen, B. J. Pienaar, M. v. Wyk & A. Nicholas. 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 2(1–2): 1–152(pt. 1), 1–270(pt. 2). http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1371
- Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1515
- Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2007. Fl. China 13: 1–548. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1031194
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Global Range: Texas; Louisiana; W. South Carolina; Florida; W. Cuba; Bahamas; E. coast of Mexico to N. South America; West Indies; Bermuda.
Solitary, sessile; yellow. Flowering throughout the year.
An obovoid berry; purple when ripe; seeds many. Fruiting throughout the year.
Stem jointed, fleshy, flattened. Spines 5-7 per areoles. Leaves early caducous."
Catalog Number: US 2436973
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): D. Griffiths
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: Texas, United States, North America
- Holotype: Griffiths, D. 1916. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 43: 92.
Habitat and Ecology
Depth range (m): 0.5 - 0.5
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
Comments: Sandy soils of coastal woods and dunes, jungles, shell mounds, and swamp borders just above sea level.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Comments: Sixty-six EO's (Benson 1982).
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Opuntia stricta
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread throughout parts of the southeastern Unites States.
Comments: Most cacti subject to horticultural collecting.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Opuntia stricta is a species of cactus from southern North America, Central America, the Caribbean, and northern South America. Common names include Erect Prickly Pear and Nopal Estricto (Spanish).
Opuntia stricta occurs naturally in Texas, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida and South Carolina in the United States as well as the Bahamas, Bermuda, the Caribbean, eastern Mexico, Central America, northern Venezuela, and Ecuador.
It has been introduced to many parts of the world, including Africa, Southern Europe (mostly in Sicily), and southern Asia. O. stricta is considered an invasive species in South Africa. In Australia it has been the subject of one of the first really effective biological control exercises using the moth Cactoblastis cactorum. It was declared a Weed of National Significance by the Australian Weeds Committee in April 2012, but continues to be kept under control by the use of the Cactoblastis moth and a cochineal insect, Dactylopius opuntiae.
In Sri Lanka it has overgrown a 30 kilometer long coastal area between Hambantota and Yala National Park, especially in Bundala National Park, a Ramsar wetland site. It has overgrown several hundreds of hectares of sand dune areas and adjoining scrub forests and pasture lands. Some areas are so densely covered that they are completely inaccessible for humans and animals. The seeds are spread by macaque monkeys, and perhaps other animals and birds, that eat the large fruits. It is also spread by people cutting down the cactus but leaving the cuttings, which then re-sprout where they have fallen. No control measures have been carried out except some costly manual removal of about 10 hectares on the dunes near Bundala village. The cactus is due to invade Yala National Park.
- Cactus dillenii Ker Gawl.
- Cactus strictus Haw.
- Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Haw.
- Opuntia vulgaris var. balearica F.A.C.Weber
- "Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-08-29. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
- "Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw.". ITIS Standard Report. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
- Lalith Gunasekera, Invasive Plants: A guide to the identification of the most invasive plants of Sri Lanka, Colombo 2009, p. 84–85. A biodiversity status profile of Bundala National Park : a Ramsar national wetland of Sri Lanka Bambaradeniya, Channa N.B. ; Ekanayake, S.P. ; Fernando, R.H.S.S. ; Perera, W.P.N. ; Somaweera, R. Colombo : IUCN Sri Lanka, 2002. ISBN 955-8177-16-4.