Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is widespread, occurring in the Bahamas, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador (Guayas and Manabí provinces), Jamaica, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Netherland Antilles, United States, US Virgin Islands, and Venezuela (Hunt et al. 2006). It is generally found close to sea level, but there are some records from higher elevations, up to 1,000 m, in Querétaro, Mexico.In Mexico, this species occurs in the states of Campeche, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, and Yucatán (Hunt et al. 2006). Records from Oaxaca and Tamaulipas require verification. In the United States, O. stricta occurs in the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Texas (Hunt et al. 2006). In Brazil it can be found in the states of Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia (Taylor and Zappi 2004). It is introduced and invasive in Europe, Africa, and Australia.

The species is thought to be introduced in Ecuador (N.P. Taylor pers. comm. 2011).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: Texas; Louisiana; W. South Carolina; Florida; W. Cuba; Bahamas; E. coast of Mexico to N. South America; West Indies; Bermuda.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

"Found in wastelands and roadsides. Plains from the coast to 900m. Common. Native of America, introduced into oldworld, now in the wild."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ala., Fla., Ga., S.C., Tex.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South Africa (introduced); Australia (introduced).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

Solitary, sessile; yellow. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

An obovoid berry; purple when ripe; seeds many. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Stem jointed, fleshy, flattened. Spines 5-7 per areoles. Leaves early caducous.

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Shrubs, sprawling or erect, to 2 m. Stem segments not dis-articulating, green, flattened, narrowly elliptic or obovate, 10-25(-40) × 7.5-15(-25) cm, tuberculate, making margins appear scalloped between raised areoles, glabrous; areoles 3-5 per diagonal row across midstem segment, oval, 3-6.5 × 3.5 mm; wool dense, tan. Spines 0-11 per areole, in nearly all areoles to only in some marginal areoles or absent, spreading in all directions, yellow, aging brown, straight or curving, the longest stout, oval in cross section, 12-40(-60) mm, not markedly barbed. Glochids in-conspicuous, few to many in crescent at adaxial edge of areole, yellow, aging brown, often incurved, subequal to increasing in length toward adaxial edge of areole, to 4 mm. Flowers: inner tepals light yellow throughout, 25-30 mm; filaments yellow; anthers yellow; style and stigma lobes yellowish. Fruits purplish throughout, stipitate, ellipsoid or barrel-shaped, 40-60 × 25-30(-40) mm, juicy, spineless; areoles 6-10. Seeds tan, subcircular, 4-5 × 4-4.5 mm, with slightly irregular surface; girdle protruding to 1 mm. 2n = 44 (cultivated), 66.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: An armed, succulent shrub, upto 1m."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonym

Cactus strictus Haworth, Misc. Nat., 188. 1803; Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawler) Haworth; O. inermis (de Candolle) de Candolle; O. stricta var. dillenii (Ker Gawler) L. D. Benson
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Holotype for Opuntia anahuacensis Griffiths
Catalog Number: US 2436973
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): D. Griffiths
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: Texas, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Griffiths, D. 1916. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 43: 92.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs on coastal dunes and tropical dry forest. It adapts well to modified and degraded habitats in areas near sea level.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Sandy soils of coastal woods and dunes, jungles, shell mounds, and swamp borders just above sea level.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Coastal sand dunes, hammocks, edges of maritime forests, shell middens; 0m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 0.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: Sixty-six EO's (Benson 1982).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring-summer (Feb-Jul).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Opuntia stricta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Durán, R., Gómez-Hinostrosa, C., Hernández, H.M., Tapia, J.L., Terrazas, T. & Loaiza, C.

Reviewer/s
Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.

Contributor/s

Justification
Opuntia stricta is listed as Least Concern because it is widespread, common, has no major threats, and is found in many protected areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Widespread throughout parts of the southeastern Unites States.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This species is very common and abundant.

Population Trend
Increasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species. A potential threat to species of the genus Opuntia is the invasion of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum, which can completely extirpate populations (Zimmermann et al. 2000).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Most cacti subject to horticultural collecting.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is found in many protected areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Folklore

"Indigenous Information: Fruits are edible and helps to increase appetite. Excessive amounts may cause diaorrhea. Flowers are used to treat heat boils. Fruits eaten by peacocks, squirrels and hares."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

The orange-red coloured fruits are edible after the spines have been carefully removed. Often planted as a fence.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Opuntia stricta

Opuntia stricta is a species of cactus from southern North America, Central America, the Caribbean, and northern South America.[1] Common names include erect prickly pear and nopal estricto (Spanish).[2]

It is an erect or sprawling shrub up to 2 m (6.6 ft) in height, producing lemon yellow flowers in the spring and summer, followed by purplish-red fruits.

Distribution[edit]

Opuntia stricta occurs naturally in Texas, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida and South Carolina in the United States as well as the Bahamas, Bermuda, the Caribbean, eastern Mexico, Central America, northern Venezuela, and Ecuador.

Invasive species[edit]

Plant with fruits, Sète, France.

It has been introduced to many parts of the world, including Africa, Southern Europe (mostly in Sicily), and southern Asia. O. stricta is considered an invasive species in South Africa. In Australia it has been the subject of one of the first really effective biological control exercises using the moth Cactoblastis cactorum.[1] It was declared a Weed of National Significance by the Australian Weeds Committee in April 2012, but continues to be kept under control by the use of the Cactoblastis moth and a cochineal insect, Dactylopius opuntiae.

In Sri Lanka it has overgrown a 30 kilometer long coastal area between Hambantota and Yala National Park, especially in Bundala National Park, a Ramsar wetland site. It has overgrown several hundreds of hectares of sand dune areas and adjoining scrub forests and pasture lands. Some areas are so densely covered that they are completely inaccessible for humans and animals. The seeds are spread by macaque monkeys, and perhaps other animals and birds, that eat the large fruits. It is also spread by people cutting down the cactus but leaving the cuttings, which then re-sprout where they have fallen. No control measures have been carried out except some costly manual removal of about 10 hectares on the dunes near Bundala village. The cactus is due to invade Yala National Park.[3]

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-08-29. Retrieved 2009-12-05. 
  2. ^ a b "Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw.". ITIS Standard Report. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  3. ^ Lalith Gunasekera, Invasive Plants: A guide to the identification of the most invasive plants of Sri Lanka, Colombo 2009, p. 84–85. A biodiversity status profile of Bundala National Park : a Ramsar national wetland of Sri Lanka Bambaradeniya, Channa N.B. ; Ekanayake, S.P. ; Fernando, R.H.S.S. ; Perera, W.P.N. ; Somaweera, R. Colombo : IUCN Sri Lanka, 2002. ISBN 955-8177-16-4.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Opuntia stricta hybridizes with O. engelmannii (apparently var. lindheimeri) forming O. ×alta Griffiths (as species) along the coast of southeastern Texas and adjacent Louisiana. The hexaploid hybrid is arborescent to 3 m; it has stem segments subcircular to oblong-ovate, with a glochid pattern intermediate of the putative parents, all yellow spines, and light green stigma lobes.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!