Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Mexico

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Arizona Desert; Desert Grassland; Southwestern Oak Woodland. Arizona near Mexican boundary; on Papago Indian Reservation in Pima County and near Nogales, Santa Cruz County. Mexico in Sonora and Sinaloa.

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Range Description

This species occurs in Mexico in the state of Sonora, and in the US in the state of Arizona (Hunt et al. 2006) at elevations of 200 to 1,300 m asl. Records from Arizona are old, and the species has not been seen there recently.
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Ariz.; Mexico (Sinaloa, Sonora).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants branched or unbranched; branches 0-several, not numerous, seldom rooting. Roots diffuse, upper portion not enlarged. Stems nearly spheric, 2.5-12 × 3.5-7 cm, firm; tubercles 9-10.5(-18) × 3-9 mm; axils appearing naked; cortex and pith not mucilaginous; latex absent. Spines ca. 9-16 per areole, brightly colored than M. grahamii, yellowish, pale pinkish tan, or brown (smaller spines paler), tipped dark chestnut brown to blackish, glabrous, sometimes ± pubescent when young; radial spines (8-)10-15 per areole, bristlelike, 6-10(-12) × 0.13-0.23 mm, stiff; central spines 1(-2) per areole, porrect, hooked, 11-20 × 0.2-0.4 mm; subcentral spines 0(-2) per areole, adaxial to central spines. Flowers (1-)2-3 × 1.2-2 cm; outermost tepal margins densely fringed, fringes 0.4 mm; inner tepals pinkish white with sharply defined magenta midstripes; stigma lobes bright red to red-purple, orange, or magenta, (3-)7-9 mm. Fruits bright orange-red, spheric to obovoid, 5-7 × 4-4.5 mm, level with or beneath spines, juicy only in fruit walls; floral remnant weakly persistent. Seeds black, 1-1.2 × 0.8-1 mm, pitted; testa hard; anticlinal cell walls straight; interstices conspicuously wider than pit diameters; pits bowl-shaped. 2n = 22.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: It occurs on gravelly or course sandy soils of hills, washes, and alluvial fans in desert or grassland at 600-1,200 m.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
In Arizona it occurs in desert grasslands above 1000 m of elevation. In Sonora it is most common in the Plains of Sonora, subdivision of the Sonoran Desert in central Sonora. It also occurs in foothills and coastal thornscrub in southern Sonora.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Sonoran desert, grasslands, bajadas, valleys, washes, alluvial fans [subtropical woodlands, tropical deciduous forests]; [200-]600-1200m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5

Comments: Three collections shown on map in Benson (1982).

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General Ecology

Species in the genus mammillaria will utilize refugia under the canopy of nurse plants.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Mexico

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Known from a few occurrences in Arizona. Number of occurrences in Sonora is unknown, but it is apparently uncommon there.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Reina, A.L. & Van Devender, T.

Reviewer/s
Goettsch, B.K. & Superina, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
Mammillaria mainiae is listed as Least Concern because it is widely distributed and there are no major threats affecting it.
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Population

Population
The species is widely distributed but it is not very common across its range.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Comments: Most cacti subject to horticultural collecting.

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Major Threats
The introduction of buffelgrass introduces fire as an ecological factor that affects the cacti populations, including those of Mamillaria mainiae.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It probably occurs in a protected area near Trincheras, Sonora.
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Wikipedia

Mammillaria mainiae

Mammillaria mainiae is a species of cactus in the subfamily Cactoideae.




References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

The tendency for all spine hooks on plants to be oriented in same direction is not unique to Mammillaria mainiae. This uncommon and poorly known species is restricted in the flora area to the relatively mesic eastern edge of the Sonoran Desert, in western bajadas of the Baboquivari Mountains, Arizona. Mammillaria mainiae is not known from Nogales, Arizona, contrary to L. D. Benson (1969, 1982); it was originally discovered in Mexico somewhere south of Nogales. 

 Mammillaria wrightii var. wilcoxii, which grows all around Nogales, Arizona, is easily misidentified as M. mainiae.

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