Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: It occurs in Arizona (east Pinal, Graham, east Pima, Santa Cruz and Cochise Cos. and scattered localities in mountains just above the desert in Yuma, Yavapai, Maricopa, and west Pima Cos.), New Mexico (east to Otero Co.), Texas (Franklin Mts.), and likely in Mexico.

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Range Description

The species is distributed in the states of Chihuahua and Sonora in Mexico, and in Arizona, California, and Texas in the USA. It grows at elevations from 300 to 1,500 m asl (Paredes et al. 2000).
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Ariz., Calif., N.Mex., Tex.; Mexico (Chihuahua, Sonora).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants branched or unbranched; branches 0-9(-17). Roots diffuse; upper portion not enlarged. Stems spheric to cylindric, usually (4-)5-16(-30) × (2.3-)3.5-6.8 cm, firm; tubercles 4.8-12(-15) × 3.5-7 mm; axils appearing naked; cortex and pith not mucilaginous; latex absent. Spines (19-)26-33(-38) per areole, glabrous; radial spines 17-35 per areole whitish or pale tan, bristlelike, 6-12 × 0.1-0.15 mm, stiff; central spines (2-)3-4 per areole, 1-3(-4) spines at least hooked (uncommonly 0 hooked), reddish to purplish brown to almost black (rarely golden brown), abaxial 1 porrect, others inconspicuous, appressed against radial spines, hookless porrect spines (3-)9.5-25 × 0.1-0.5 mm; subcentral spines 1-3 per areole, adaxial to central spines, sometimes transitional to central spines, usually straight and barely distinguishable from radial spines. Flowers ca. 2 × 1.8-3.5(-4.5) cm; outermost tepal margins minutely fringed; inner tepals bright rose-pink or rose-purple, 10-16 × 4-8 mm; stigma lobes yellow-green to green, 3-7 mm. Fruits green, turning bright red, scarlet, or carmine (rarely yellowish), elongating until clavate after color change to red is complete, 12-29 × 5-8 mm, juicy only in fruit walls; floral remnant persistent. Seeds black, 0.8-1 × 0.7-0.9 mm, pitted; testa hard, brittle; anticlinal cell walls straight; interstices conspicuously wider than pit diameters; pits bowl-shaped. 2n = 22.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Mammillaria grahamii var. oliviae (Orcutt) L. D. Benson; Mammillaria microcarpa Engelmann; Neomammillaria milleri Britton & Rose
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Type Information

Type collection for Neomammillaria milleri Britton & Rose
Catalog Number: US 1821083
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. R. Orcutt
Year Collected: 1922
Locality: Maricopa, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Britton, N. L. & Rose, J. N. 1923. Cactaceae. 4: 156.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: It occurs on hills and washes in grassland. In the Whipple Mountains in southeastern California, it is found on igneous gravelly slopes and rocky hillsides. It frequently grows in the shade of burrobush or paloverde, but also occurs in open areas with desert barrel cactus and buckhorn cholla (Ingram 2008).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species grows on rocks and gravelly slopes in xerophyllous scrub and grasslands (Paredes et al. 2000). It occurs in hills and washes in grassland.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Chihuahuan and Sonoran desert scrub, grasslands, interior chaparral, oak woodlands, alluvial slopes, hills, canyons, silty, sandy, gravelly, or rocky soils of igneous or calcareous origin; 80-1400m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: Fifty EO's (Benson 1982).

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General Ecology

Seedlings of this species will common establish under nurse plants, avoiding full exposure to harsh desert environmental elements.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Apr-Sep; fruiting Sep-Mar.
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Reproduction

Mammillaria grahamii is predominately an outcrossing species. In a greenhouse experiment, only 10% of self-pollinated plants set fruit and none of the seeds from the selfed fruit germinated (Bowers 2002). Mammillaria is dispersed by a wide array of vertebrate animals (van Rheede van Ousdtshorn and van Rooyen 1999). Vertebrates have more motility and are expected to generally travel longer distances than invertebrates. Mammillaria grahamii has a long-term, persistent seedbank. Seedbanks can represent an additional adaptation or 'hedge' when environmental conditions are not suitable for reproduction in some years (Bowers 2005).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Rank of G4 from Texas Heritage Program (3/94).

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Heil, K., Terry, M. & Corral-Díaz, R.

Reviewer/s
Superina, M., Goettsch, B.K. & Schipper, J.

Contributor/s

Justification

Mammillaria grahamii is wide-ranging, abundant, and there are no known threats. Hence, it is listed as Least Concern.

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Population

Population
The species is very abundant locally.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Comments: Most cacti subject to horticultural collecting.

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Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species occurs in the Franklin Mountains State Park, Texas, among others.
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Wikipedia

Mammillaria grahamii

Mammillaria grahamii is a species of cactus also known by the name Graham's Nipple Cactus.[1]

In the United States, this plant can be found in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas.[2]

Description[edit]

This cactus has hooked stems and flowers pink or lavender in April and May.[2] The cactus is commonly found a dry habitat of gravel or grassland.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "PLANTS Profile for Mammillaria grahamii". USDA Plants Database. USDA. Retrieved 17 April 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Mammillaria grahamii". Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Retrieved 17 April 2013. 



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Notes

Comments

Mammillaria grahamii is geographically variable. Past attempts to distinguish larger or western individuals as M. microcarpa have proven arbitrary. 

 All spine hooks on a plant may be oriented in the same direction, a trait sometimes mistakenly said to be limited to Mammillaria mainiae. Plants with short, straight central spines (rarely a mixture of both hooked and straight spines on the same stem) occur in some populations; they have been called M. oliviae or M. grahamii var. oliviae. The name Mammillaria microcarpa Engelmann has been widely used but was not validly published until after M. grahamii.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Distinct species; as treated by Kartesz (1999), includes M. microcarpa.

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