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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Silene acaulis subsp. subacaulescens (F.N. Williams) Hultén:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Silene acaulis subsp. arctica Á. Löve & D. Löve:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq.:
Canada (North America)
Greenland (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Greenland; Alta., B.C., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Colo., Idaho, Maine, Mont., Nev., N.H., N.Mex., N.Y., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wyo.; Europe; Asia (Russian Far East).
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants perennial, mat- or cushion-forming, subglabrous; taproot stout; caudex much-branched, becoming woody. Flowering stems erect, leafy proximally, 3-6(-15) cm, old leaves persistent at base. Leaves mostly basal, densely crowded and imbricate, sessile; blade 1(-3)-veined, linear-subulate to lanceolate, 0.4-1(-1.5) cm × 0.8-1.5(-2) mm, margins cartilaginous, often ciliolate especially proximally, apex acute, glabrous to scabrous. Inflorescences solitary flowers. Pedicels 2-40 mm. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, all plants having both staminate and pistillate flowers, others having only pistillate flowers, subsessile or borne singly on peduncle; calyx 10-veined, lateral veins absent, tubular to campanulate, (5-)7-10 mm, herbaceous, margins often purple tinged, dentate, sometimes ciliate, ± scarious, glabrous, lobes lanceolate to ovate, 1-2 mm; petals bright pink, rarely white, limb unlobed to shallowly 2-fid, 2.5-3.5 mm, base tapered into claw, auricles and appendages poorly developed; stamens exserted in staminate flowers, not so or aborted in pistillate flowers; styles 3. Capsules 3-locular, cylindric, equaling or to 2 times calyx, opening by 6 recurved teeth; carpophore ca. 1 mm. Seeds light brown, reniform, 0.8-1(-1.2) mm broad, dull, shallowly rugose. 2n = 24.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Cucubalus acaulis Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 415. 1753; Silene acaulis subsp. arctica Á. Löve & D. Löve; S. acaulis subsp. exscapa (Allioni) de Candolle; S. acaulis subsp. subacaulescens (F. M. Williams) Hultén; S. exscapa Allioni; Xamilensis acaulis (Linnaeus) Tzvelev
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Ecology

Habitat

Arctic and alpine tundra, gravelly, often wet places, rocky ledges; 0-4200m.
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Associations

Foodplant / gall
larva of Jaapiella alpina causes gall of shoot tip of Silene acaulis
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
immersed pseudothecium of Leptosphaeria silenes-acaulis feeds on capsule of Silene acaulis

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Pleospora androsaces is saprobic on dead leaf of Silene acaulis
Remarks: season: 4

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering early summer.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Silene acaulis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Silene acaulis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 33
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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Wikipedia

Silene acaulis

Silene acaulis, moss campion, or Cushion Pink is a small mountain-dwelling wildflower that is common all over the high arctic and tundra in the higher mountains of Eurasia and North America, (south to the Alps, Carpathians, southern Siberia, Pyrenees, British Isles, Faroe Islands, Rocky Mountains). It is a evergreen perennial.

Contents

Description

Moss campion is a low, ground-hugging plant.It may seem densely matted and moss-like[1]. The dense cushions are up to a foot or more in diameter. The plants are usually about 2" tall but may be as much as 6". The bright, green leaves are narrow and arise from the base of the plant. The dead leaves from the previous season persist for years, and pink flowers are borne singly on short stalks up to 1 and 1/2" long, but are usually much shorter. It usually has pink flowers and very rarel they will be white[2]. The flowers are solitary and star-shaped. They are about 1.2 cm wide. They usually appear in June through August[3]. The flowers are held by a calyx which makes it firm and thick[4]. The flowers are pollinated by Lepidoptera and are hermaphrodites meaning they are both sexes[5].

The sepals are joined together into a tube that conceals the base of the entire petals. The 10 stamen and 3 styles extend well beyond the throat of the flower.[6] Its genus is closely related to carnations, and it is circumpolar.[7]. The stems and leaves are sticky and viscid to the tough, which may discourage ants and beetles from climbing on the plant[8]. Its variety exscapa has shorter flowering stems. The other variety subacaulescens from Wyoming and Colorado has pale pink flowers all summer[9].

Habitat

Alpine fellfield, on windswept rocky ridges and summits above treeline. It grows mainly in dry, gravelly localities, but also in damper places. With the cushions it produces its own, warmer climate with high temperatures inside, when the sun shines[10].

Distribution/Range

Common all over the high arctic and the higher mountains of Eurasia and North America, (south to the Alps, Carpathians, southern Siberia, Pyrenees, British Isles, Faroe Islands, Rocky Mountains, ). In the United States it inhabits Colorado, the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Wallowa Mountains of Oregon, the Olympics, the northern Cascades of Washington and Alaska[11].

USDA North American distribution of Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq.
USDA North American Native Status of Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq.

Range:

  • USA (AK, AZ, CO, ID, ME, MT, NH, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY)
  • CAN (AB, BC, LB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT)
  • DEN (GL), FRA (SPM)

Propagation

The seeds should sow early in the spring time. Put the seedlings into separate pots, and it is recommended to let them winter in the greenhouse for their first winter season. To clean them rub the capsules through a screen. Its advised to plant them in the late spring or early summer because division takes place in the spring. They should be grown in well-drained soil with full sun. The climate can be cool.[12].

Endangered Information

In Maine it is possibly extirpated,[13] and in New Hampshire Silene acaulis var. exscapa is threatened.[14]

History

Plants in Colorado have been estimated to reach 75 to 100 years in age, and Alaskan plants may reach 300 years. The oldest knows moss campion is 350 years old and has a diameter of two feet.[15] The plant used to be used for children with colic[16]. The raw root skin plants were consumed as a vegetable in Iceland and in Artic regions[17].

Hazards/Toxicity

There is no listing that moss campion is toxic but it does have saponins which are toxic. They are toxic but hard to absorb in the body. They can be broken down by thorough cooking. Its advised to not consume large amounts of this plant.

Classification

[18]

Gallery

See also

References

  • Benedict, Audrey D. The Naturalist's Guide to the Southern Rockies: Colorado, Southern Wyoming, and Northern New Mexico. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Pub., 2008. Print.
  • European Garden Flora, Vol. III.
  • Phillips, W. (1999). Central Rocky Mountain Wildflowers : A Field Guide to Common Wildflowers, Shrubs, and Trees. Falcon Publishing, Inc.
  • Weber, William A. Colorado Flora. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated UP, 1987. Print.
  • USDA. "Plants Profile." Natural Resources Conservation Service. Web. <http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SIAC>.
  • Nicholls, Graham, and Rick Lupp. Alpine Plants of North America: an Encyclopedia of Mountain Flowers from the Rockies to Alaska. Portland: Timber, 2002. Print.
  • Zwinger, Ann, and Beatrice E. Willard. Land above the Trees: a Guide to American Alpine Tundra. Boulder, CO: Johnson, 1996. Print.
  • Acaulis - (L.)Jacq." Plants for a Future. Web. <http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Silene+acaulis>.
  • Ceralde, Jason. Plant Propagation Protocol for Acaulis (L.) Jacq. 11 May 2011. Web. <http://courses.washington.edu/esrm412/protocols/SIAC.pdf>.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Weber, William A. Colorado Flora. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated UP, 1987. Print.
  2. ^ Weber, William A. Colorado Flora. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated UP, 1987. Print.
  3. ^ Nicholls, Graham, and Rick Lupp. Alpine Plants of North America: an Encyclopedia of Mountain Flowers from the Rockies to Alaska. Portland: Timber, 2002. Print.
  4. ^ Zwinger, Ann, and Beatrice E. Willard. Land above the Trees: a Guide to American Alpine Tundra. Boulder, CO: Johnson, 1996. Print.
  5. ^ http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Silene+acaulis
  6. ^ Phillips, W (1999). Central Rocky Mountain Wildflowers: A Field Guide to Common Wildflowers, Shrubs, and Trees. Falcon Publishing, Inc.
  7. ^ Nicholls, Graham, and Rick Lupp. Alpine Plants of North America: an Encyclopedia of Mountain Flowers from the Rockies to Alaska. Portland: Timber, 2002. Print.
  8. ^ Zwinger, Ann, and Beatrice E. Willard. Land above the Trees: a Guide to American Alpine Tundra. Boulder, CO: Johnson, 1996. Print.
  9. ^ Nicholls, Graham, and Rick Lupp. Alpine Plants of North America: an Encyclopedia of Mountain Flowers from the Rockies to Alaska. Portland: Timber, 2002. Print.
  10. ^ Benedict, Audrey D. The Naturalist's Guide to the Southern Rockies: Colorado, Southern Wyoming, and Northern New Mexico. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Pub., 2008. Print.
  11. ^ Nicholls, Graham, and Rick Lupp. Alpine Plants of North America: an Encyclopedia of Mountain Flowers from the Rockies to Alaska. Portland: Timber, 2002. Print.
  12. ^ http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Silene+acaulis
  13. ^ USDA plant profile
  14. ^ http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SIAC
  15. ^ Benedict, Audrey D. The Naturalist's Guide to the Southern Rockies: Colorado, Southern Wyoming, and Northern New Mexico. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Pub., 2008. Print.
  16. ^ http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Silene+acaulis
  17. ^ http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Silene+acaulis
  18. ^ USDA. "Plants Profile." Natural Resources Conservation Service. Web. <http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SIAC>.
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Notes

Comments

Silene acaulis is a variable species, and most workers have recognized infraspecific taxa in North America: subsp. acaulis (subsp. exscapa and subsp. arctica), which is predominantly arctic; and subsp. subacaulescens, which extends down the Rocky Mountains from Alaska to Arizona and New Mexico. In subsp. acaulis, the leaves are flat and short and the flowers are subsessile and smaller in size. Subspecies subacaulescens is typically a larger, less-compact plant with longer, narrower leaves and larger, pedunculate flowers. However, in many populations, these two variants are poorly differentiated, and in others both occur together, connected by intermediates.  

Silene acaulis is widely distributed in arctic and alpine Europe.

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