Overview

Distribution

More info for the term: cactus

Barrel cactus is distributed in southeastern Arizona from Maricopa and
Pima to Greenlee and Cochise counties, east to southern New Mexico from
Hidalgo County to southwestern Lincoln County, and in El Paso County,
Texas. Barrel cactus is also found in Mexico to Sinaloa and Chihuahua
[1,17,36,38]. It is cultivated in Hawaii [40].
  • 1. Benson, Lyman. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1044 p. [1513]
  • 17. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 36. Weniger, Del. 1970. Cacti of the Southwest: Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. The Elma Dill Russell Specncer Foundation Series No. 4. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 247 p. [25158]
  • 38. Daniel, Jim; Rowland, Doug. 1978. Ferocactus wislizenii. Cactus and Succulent Journal. 33(3): 67-68. [22784]
  • 40. St. John, Harold. 1973. List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian islands. Hong Kong: Cathay Press Limited. 519 p. [25354]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

7 Lower Basin and Range
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains

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Occurrence in North America

AZ HI NM TX MEXICO

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: cactus, central spines, root crown, stem succulent

Barrel cactus is a native stem succulent that is barrel-shaped or
sometimes columnar with rarely more than one stem. It ranges from 2
to 10 feet (3 m) tall, with a diameter of 18 to 33 inches (45-83 cm).
Barrel cactus has 20 to 28 ribs. The spines are dense, somewhat
obscuring the surface of the stem. There are four central spines per
areole, the larger ones 1.5 to 2 inches (3.8-5.0 cm) long, and 12 to 20
radial spines to 1.8 inches (4.5 cm) in length. Flowers form on growth
of the current season near the stem apex. The fruit is yellow,
barrel-shaped, and fleshy at maturity [1,17,36].

According to Cannon [7], the root system of barrel cactus is shallow and
confined to the upper soil layers. At one site a main anchoring root
extended down to about 8 inches (20 cm) and had several short laterals.
Horizontal roots originated from the root crown and were very shallow.
Depth of burial decreased with distance from the plant and ranged from
0.6 to 1.2 inches (1.5-3.0 cm). Roots were often exposed after rain
storms.
  • 1. Benson, Lyman. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1044 p. [1513]
  • 7. Cannon, William Austin. 1911. The root habits of desert plants. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institution of Washington. 96 p. [5003]
  • 17. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 36. Weniger, Del. 1970. Cacti of the Southwest: Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. The Elma Dill Russell Specncer Foundation Series No. 4. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 247 p. [25158]

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

More info for the term: cactus

Barrel cactus is found on rocky, gravelly, or sandy soils of hills,
flats, canyons, wash margins, and alluvial fans in desert shrublands and
grasslands from 990 to 5,280 feet (300-1,600 m) elevation [1,35,38]. It
also extends into woodland communities occurring at elevations below
6,500 feet (1,970 m) [14]. Barrel cactus is frost-sensitive [28], which
is a limiting site factor at higher elevations and northern latitudes.
  • 1. Benson, Lyman. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1044 p. [1513]
  • 14. Humphrey, Robert R. 1960. Forage production on Arizona ranges. V. Pima, Pinal and Santa Cruz Counties. Bulletin 502. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 137 p. [4520]
  • 28. Steenbergh, Warren F.; Lowe, Charles H. 1969. Critical factors during the first years of the saguaro (Cereus giganteus) at Saguaro National Monument, Arizona. Ecology. 50(5): 825-834. [19692]
  • 35. Warren, Peter L.; Hoy, Marina S.; Hoy, Wilton E. 1992. Vegetation and flora of Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Arizona. Tech. Rep. NPS/WRUA/NRTR-92/43. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. 78 p. [19871]
  • 38. Daniel, Jim; Rowland, Doug. 1978. Ferocactus wislizenii. Cactus and Succulent Journal. 33(3): 67-68. [22784]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: cactus, codominant

Barrel cactus is primarily found in desert grassland and desert shrub
habitats in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts [1,5,14,27]. It also
extends into communities at higher elevations in interior chaparral and
is found in the Madrean evergreen woodland in encinal woodlands with a
mixture of evergreen oaks (Quercus spp.) and junipers (Juniperus spp.)
[5,14]. Barrel cactus is not listed as a dominant or codominant species
in available publications.

Some species generally associated with barrel cactus include prickly
pear or cholla (Opuntia spp.), acacia (Acacia spp.), ocotillo (Fouqueria
splendens), yucca (Yucca spp.), saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), grama
(Bouteloua spp.), and threeawn (Aristida spp.) [3,4,18,21].
  • 1. Benson, Lyman. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1044 p. [1513]
  • 3. Blydenstein, John; Hungerford, C. Roger; Day, Gerald I.; Humphrey, R. 1957. Effect of domestic livestock exclusion on vegetation in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology. 38(3): 522-526. [4570]
  • 4. Brown, Albert L. 1950. Shrub invasion of southern Arizona desert grassland. Journal of Range Management. 3: 172-177. [4452]
  • 5. Brown, David E. 1982. Madrean evergreen woodland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 59-65. [8886]
  • 14. Humphrey, Robert R. 1960. Forage production on Arizona ranges. V. Pima, Pinal and Santa Cruz Counties. Bulletin 502. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 137 p. [4520]
  • 21. McLaughlin, Steven P.; Bowers, Janice E. 1982. Effects of wildfire on a Sonoran Desert plant community. Ecology. 63(1): 246-248. [1619]
  • 27. Spellenberg, Richard. 1993. Species of special concern. In: Dick-Peddie, William A., ed. New Mexico vegetation: Past, present, and future. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press: 179-224. [21102]
  • 18. Kennedy, Charles E. 1983. A palo verde snag in the Sonora Desert. In: Davis, Jerry W.; Goodwin, Gregory A.; Ockenfeis, Richard A., technical coordinators. Snag Habitat management: proceedings of the symposium; 1983 June 7-9; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-99. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 165-166. [17832]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the terms: cactus, shrub

K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland
K027 Mesquite bosque
K031 Oak - juniper woodlands
K040 Saltbush - greasewood
K041 Creosotebush
K042 Creosotebush - bursage
K043 Paloverde - cactus shrub
K044 Creosotebush - tarbush
K046 Desert: vegetation largely lacking
K053 Grama - galleta steppe
K054 Grama - tobosa prairie
K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon - juniper
FRES40 Desert grasslands

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

68 Mesquite
239 Pinyon - juniper
241 Western live oak
242 Mesquite

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General Ecology

Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cacti, cactus, fuel, shrub

Average mortalities of 50 to 67 percent have been reported for barrel
cactus within the first 2 years following fire in desert grassland and
desert shrub communities in southern Arizona [13,15,23,32,37].

Two consecutive winters of heavy rain produced enough fuel to carry a
fire in a portion of the Sonoran Desert where fire is usually considered
ecologically insignificant. Following the Granite Fire in Arizona in
June 1979, large-diameter cacti including barrel cactus had the lowest
mortality rate of all cacti. Many severely burned plants survived and
produced flowers and seeds. An average of 20 plants per hectare
occurred on unburned sites, and 15 plants per hectare occurred on burns
in postfire years 1 and 2. Barrel cactus had an overall mortality rate
of 59 percent in burned areas within the first 19 postfire months [21].

Barrel cactus had an average of 6 percent and 31 percent mortality on
unburned and burned sites, respectively, following fires in semidesert
grasslands on the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge and in the
Sierrita Mountains of southern Arizona. Plants were counted within 11
to 14 postfire months. Barrel cactus also had significantly greater
(p less than .001) fire mortality when under a mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) canopy
(53%) than in open grassy areas (19%) [31].
  • 13. Humphrey, R. R. 1949. Fire as a means of controlling velvet mesquite, burroweed, and cholla on southern Arizona ranges. Journal of Range Management. 2: 175-182. [5050]
  • 15. Humphrey, Robert R. 1963. The role of fire in the desert and desert grassland areas of Arizona. In: Proceedings, 2nd annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1963 March 14-15; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 45-61. [19000]
  • 21. McLaughlin, Steven P.; Bowers, Janice E. 1982. Effects of wildfire on a Sonoran Desert plant community. Ecology. 63(1): 246-248. [1619]
  • 23. Reynolds, H. G.; Bohning, J. W. 1956. Effects of burning on a desert grass-shrub range in southern Arizona. Ecology. 37(4): 769-777. [1958]
  • 31. Thomas, P. A.; Goodson, P. 1992. Conservation of succulents in desert grasslands managed by fire. Biological Conservation. 60(2): 91-100. [19894]
  • 32. Trabaud, L. 1987. Fire and survival traits of plants. In: Trabaud, L., ed. Role of fire in ecological systems. Hague, The Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishers: 65-89. [16411]
  • 37. Wright, Henry A. 1980. The role and use of fire in the semidesert grass-shrub type. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-85. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. [2616]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the terms: cacti, cactus

Barrel cactus plants more than 1 foot (0.3 m) tall are rarely killed by
fire since only their spines are combustible. However, plants less than
that height may suffer up to 75 percent mortality as a direct result of
fire damage to the apical meristem, or a combination of fire damage to
the meristem and damage from herbivory [16].

Succculents in general rarely actually burn, but spines may ignite and
carry flames to the apex. The cactus body may scorch and blister
without pyrolysis, leaving undamaged parts of the plant alive.
Mortality results from death of the photosynthetic tissue and underlying
cambium and phloem. Cacti may appear completely scorched with no green
tissue visible, yet survive fire. However, fire can cause delayed
mortality, which may not occur for months or even years [30]. Removal
of the spines also increases subsequent herbivory [23,30]. Survival of
succulents depends primarily on protection of the apical meristem. If
the apical meristem is undamaged, the cactus will resume growth [30].
  • 16. Humphrey, Robert R. 1974. Fire in the deserts and desert grassland of North America. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 365-400. [14064]
  • 23. Reynolds, H. G.; Bohning, J. W. 1956. Effects of burning on a desert grass-shrub range in southern Arizona. Ecology. 37(4): 769-777. [1958]
  • 30. Thomas, P. A. 1991. Response of succulents to fire: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1(1): 11-22. [14991]

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: cacti, cactus, cover

Large succulents such as barrel cactus have a thick cortex that
insulates the vascular tissue. The cortex thickens with age, so older
individuals may be more resistant to fire than younger ones. Taller
individuals are more likely to survive fire because the apical meristem
may be above flame height. Cacti escape fire in refugia and in areas
with fuels too sparse to carry fire. Cacti do not appear to store seed
in soil seedbanks [30].

Although desert vegetation rarely burns completely due to a lack of
continuous fuels, unusually heavy winter rains may produce a cover of
annual species dense enough to carry a fire when cured. Fires resulting
from this situation tend to occur at the desert-desert grassland ecotone
[16], a common habitat of barrel cactus. Thomas [30] has cited
references suggesting that fire intervals in desert grasslands may be as
short as 3 to 40 years. Repeated fires may be disastrous to barrel
cactus populations, whose recovery period has been estimated at more
than 15 years [37]. Most desert habitat does not produce enough
vegetation to support frequent fires. If frequent fires do occur they
gradually reduce succulent populations, although a small percentage of
individuals may survive in refugia [30].
  • 16. Humphrey, Robert R. 1974. Fire in the deserts and desert grassland of North America. In: Kozlowski, T. T.; Ahlgren, C. E., eds. Fire and ecosystems. New York: Academic Press: 365-400. [14064]
  • 30. Thomas, P. A. 1991. Response of succulents to fire: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1(1): 11-22. [14991]
  • 37. Wright, Henry A. 1980. The role and use of fire in the semidesert grass-shrub type. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-85. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p. [2616]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: climax

Barrel cactus' life span has been reported to be from 50 [11] to 130
years [26]. It is a climax member of the desert grassland [27].
  • 11. Goldberg, Deborah E.; Turner, Raymond M. 1986. Vegetation change and plant demography in permanent plots in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology. 67(3): 695-712. [4410]
  • 26. Shreve, Forrest; Hinckley, Arthur L. 1937. Thirty years of change in desert vegetation. Ecology. 18(4): 463-478. [4574]
  • 27. Spellenberg, Richard. 1993. Species of special concern. In: Dick-Peddie, William A., ed. New Mexico vegetation: Past, present, and future. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press: 179-224. [21102]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: cactus

Glendening [10] stated that barrel cactus reproduces from seeds only,
which are dispersed by birds and rodents [10,38]. No offsets were
reported after fires in southern Arizona; growth was from the apical
meristem only [31]. Ferocactus species will often branch at the apex
following injury to the terminal bud [1].

Limiting factors for germination of barrel cactus seeds are temperature
and light. Greatest germination takes place at 68 to 86 degrees
Fahrenheit (20-30 deg C) after at least 8 hours of light. Seeds do not
germinate in the dark [12].
  • 1. Benson, Lyman. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1044 p. [1513]
  • 10. Glendening, George E. 1952. Some quantitative data on the increase of mesquite and cactus on a desert grassland range in southern Arizona. Ecology. 33(3): 319-328. [4454]
  • 12. Heit, C. E. 1970. Laboratory germination of barrel and saguaro cactus seed. Ass. Off. Seed Anal. News Letter. 44(4): 11-15. [21019]
  • 31. Thomas, P. A.; Goodson, P. 1992. Conservation of succulents in desert grasslands managed by fire. Biological Conservation. 60(2): 91-100. [19894]
  • 38. Daniel, Jim; Rowland, Doug. 1978. Ferocactus wislizenii. Cactus and Succulent Journal. 33(3): 67-68. [22784]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

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More info for the term: stem succulent

Stem succulent

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Life Form

More info for the term: cactus

Cactus

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: cactus

Barrel cactus flowers sporadically in late spring and profusely in the
summer (July to September) [1,17].
  • 1. Benson, Lyman. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1044 p. [1513]
  • 17. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]

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Conservation

Management

Management considerations

More info for the term: cactus

Glendening [10] and Brown [4] reported that barrel cactus increased over
17- or 18-year periods, respectively, on desert grasslands of Arizona.
Both studies included treatments that excluded cattle and rabbits (no
grazing), excluded cattle only (light grazing), and contained areas open
to grazing. The following average numbers of barrel cactus plants under
each treatment were reported by Glendening [10] on the Santa Rita
Experimental Range:

No grazing Light grazing Open
________________________________________________________
1932 0 0.5 0.5
1949 30.5 24.0 5.0

Blydenstein [3] stated that there was no significant difference in
frequency of barrel cactus between lightly grazed desert shrub
communities and communities that had been protected from grazing for 50
years.

Barrel cactus populations are negatively affected by urban development
and cactus collection [27].
  • 3. Blydenstein, John; Hungerford, C. Roger; Day, Gerald I.; Humphrey, R. 1957. Effect of domestic livestock exclusion on vegetation in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology. 38(3): 522-526. [4570]
  • 4. Brown, Albert L. 1950. Shrub invasion of southern Arizona desert grassland. Journal of Range Management. 3: 172-177. [4452]
  • 10. Glendening, George E. 1952. Some quantitative data on the increase of mesquite and cactus on a desert grassland range in southern Arizona. Ecology. 33(3): 319-328. [4454]
  • 27. Spellenberg, Richard. 1993. Species of special concern. In: Dick-Peddie, William A., ed. New Mexico vegetation: Past, present, and future. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press: 179-224. [21102]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Other uses and values

More info for the term: cactus

Native Americans have used barrel cactus pulp for making jelly and
cactus candy [19,36]. Barrel cactus is extensively collected and used
in landscaping themes and cactus gardens [38].
  • 19. Krochmal, A.; Paur, S.; Duisberg, P. 1954. Useful native plants in the American Southwestern deserts. Economic Botany. 8: 3-20. [2766]
  • 36. Weniger, Del. 1970. Cacti of the Southwest: Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. The Elma Dill Russell Specncer Foundation Series No. 4. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 247 p. [25158]
  • 38. Daniel, Jim; Rowland, Doug. 1978. Ferocactus wislizenii. Cactus and Succulent Journal. 33(3): 67-68. [22784]

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Nutritional Value

More info for the term: cactus

Barrel cactus fruits are reported to be highly digestible (greater than
50% of dry matter) by mule deer. The following in vitro dry matter
digestibility (DMD) and nutrient values (%) were reported for barrel
cactus fruits in different seasons on the Santa Rita Experimental Range
in southern Arizona [24]:

Spring Summer Fall Winter
___________________________________________________________________
DMD 59.5 78.1 60.9 73.5
Protein 7.8 8.6 6.2 10.8
Phosphorous 0.20 0.21 0.18 0.23
P/Ca 0.65 0.48 0.47 0.61
  • 24. Short, Henry L. 1977. Food habits of mule deer in a semi-desert grass-shrub habitat. Journal of Range Management. 30: 206-209. [9895]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cactus

Barrel cactus is often consumed by cattle and rabbits if the spines are
removed by a disturbance such as fire [10,14,34].

Mule deer in the Sonoran Desert readily consume barrel cactus fruits.
Mule deer diets consisted of 35.6, 42.5, 5.4, and 1.9 percent barrel
cactus fruits in the fall, winter, spring, and summer, respectively
[24,25]. Collared peccary also consume barrel cactus fruits when they
are available [39].

Barrel cactus seeds are eaten by many birds [38].
  • 10. Glendening, George E. 1952. Some quantitative data on the increase of mesquite and cactus on a desert grassland range in southern Arizona. Ecology. 33(3): 319-328. [4454]
  • 14. Humphrey, Robert R. 1960. Forage production on Arizona ranges. V. Pima, Pinal and Santa Cruz Counties. Bulletin 502. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 137 p. [4520]
  • 24. Short, Henry L. 1977. Food habits of mule deer in a semi-desert grass-shrub habitat. Journal of Range Management. 30: 206-209. [9895]
  • 25. Short, Henry L. 1979. Deer in Arizona and New Mexico: their ecology and a theory explaining recent population decreases. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-70. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 25 p. [4489]
  • 34. Brown, Sandra. 1981. A comparison of the structure, primary productivity, and transpiration of cypress ecosystems in Florida. Ecological Monographs. 51(4): 403-427. [21843]
  • 38. Daniel, Jim; Rowland, Doug. 1978. Ferocactus wislizenii. Cactus and Succulent Journal. 33(3): 67-68. [22784]
  • 39. Eddy, Thomas A. 1961. Foods and feeding patterns of the collared peccary in southern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management. 25: 248-257. [9888]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

More info for the term: cactus

barrel cactus
southwestern barrel cactus
bisnaga
visnaga

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More info for the term: cactus

The currently accepted scientific name of barrel cactus is Ferocactus
wislizenii (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose (Cactaceae) [1,36,38]. There are no
recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms.
  • 1. Benson, Lyman. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1044 p. [1513]
  • 36. Weniger, Del. 1970. Cacti of the Southwest: Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. The Elma Dill Russell Specncer Foundation Series No. 4. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 247 p. [25158]
  • 38. Daniel, Jim; Rowland, Doug. 1978. Ferocactus wislizenii. Cactus and Succulent Journal. 33(3): 67-68. [22784]

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Synonyms

Echinocactus wislizenii Engelm. [1,17,36]
  • 1. Benson, Lyman. 1982. The cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1044 p. [1513]
  • 17. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 36. Weniger, Del. 1970. Cacti of the Southwest: Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. The Elma Dill Russell Specncer Foundation Series No. 4. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 247 p. [25158]

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