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BiologyBenthic (Ref. 58302). Adults occur from lowland streams and rivers to relatively swift streams at elevations of 1000 m. They often burrow into the substrate with only the eyes showing; feed on filamentous algae, worms, crustaceans, various insects and insects larvae, and suspended food particles; has been long favored as food by the early Hawaiians (Ref. 44091). Larvae develop and metamorphose in the marine zooplankton and as juveniles, about 161 days old, recruit to freshwater streams, where they undergo rapid growth and morphological changes necessary for upstream migration to the adult habitat (Ref. 51037).