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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Aphids have fascinating and complex life-cycles, comprising of several different forms and numerous generations each year (4). The eggs overwinter on certain host plants, which in the black bean aphid are the spindle tree (Eunomys europaeus), or on Viburnum or Philadelphius plants. The aphids that hatch from these eggs in spring are all special wingless females, known as 'stem mothers'. These stem mothers are able to reproduce asexually through a process known as 'parthenogenesis' that does not involve mating. Furthermore, they do not lay eggs but give birth to live offspring, which are also females and able to reproduce without mating. The next generation to be produced are typically winged forms, and these undertake migrations to new plants. These summer hosts include a range of species such as beans, docks and spinach. Further bursts of asexual reproduction and live births on these hosts allow large populations to build up quickly on these plants. Winged and wingless forms are produced throughout the summer, with the winged forms allowing dispersal to new plants. Towards autumn, migration back to the primary hosts occurs. Sexual females are produced on the winter hosts and males mate with the females. It is on these plants that the mated females lay eggs which will overwinter, allowing the whole cycle to start once more the following year (4).
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Description

Although sometimes called 'blackfly', the black bean aphid is actually a true bug (a member of the order Hemiptera). All true bugs are united by the possession of specialised piercing and sucking mouthparts, which are used in this species to obtain plant juices (3). It is this characteristic, coupled with its prolific reproductive capabilities that has made the species a notorious enemy of farmers and gardeners alike (3). This widespread aphid is a minute species with a small head and bulbous abdomen (4). The body is blackish or dark green in colour (2) and the membranous wings are held angled over the body (like a roof) when at rest. Not all individuals possess wings, and the wingless forms have squatter bodies than winged specimens (2). Two tube-like protrusions at the rear of the abdomen, known as cornicles, are the openings of wax glands. This wax protects the aphid from certain predators (4).
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Distribution

Range

Widespread throughout Britain, and frequently a pest (1).
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Ecology

Habitat

Occurs in a range of habitats including crop fields and gardens (1).
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Associations

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled stem of Vicia faba
Remarks: season: 5-7
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis fabae sucks sap of Heracleum sphondylium

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis fabae sucks sap of Silene dioica

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis fabae sucks sap of Magnoliopsida

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot (young) of Phaseolus vulgaris
Remarks: season: 5-7
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot (young) of Phaseolus coccineus
Remarks: season: 5-7
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot of Dahlia
Remarks: season: summer
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot of Papaver
Remarks: season: summer
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot of Tropaeolum
Remarks: season: summer
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot (young) of Euonymus
Remarks: season: early spring

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis fabae sucks sap of stem of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: winter
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot (young) of Philadelphus
Remarks: season: early spring

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis fabae sucks sap of stem of Euonymus europaeus
Remarks: season: winter
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis fabae sucks sap of leaf of Beta vulgaris ssp vulgaris var. vulgaris

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot of Spinacia oleracea
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot of Chenopodium album
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis fabae sucks sap of Solanum tuberosum

Virus / infection vector
Bean Yellow Mosaic virus is spread by Aphis fabae

Virus / infection vector
Beet Mosaic virus is spread by Aphis fabae

Virus / infection vector
Cucumber Mosaic virus is spread by Aphis fabae

Virus / infection vector
Narcissus White Streak virus is spread by Aphis fabae

Virus / infection vector
Pea Mosaic virus is spread by Aphis fabae

Virus / infection vector
Tulip Breaking virus is spread by Aphis fabae

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Feet adhere temporarily: aphids
 

The feet of aphids appear to adhere to surfaces using capillary adhesion.

   
  "Thus, in an aerial system, water can act as an adequate glue by a mechanism commonly referred to as 'capillary adhesion.' Aphids appear to use it to adhere to surfaces (Dixon, Croghan, and Gowing 1990). And it almost certainly helps a tree frog rest placidly on a vertical pane of glass." (Vogel 2003:428)

 

"1. The adhesive force acting between the adhesive organs and substratum for a number of aphid species has been studied. In the case of Aphis fabae, the force per foot is about 10 µN. This is much the same on both glass (amphiphilic) and silanized glass (hydrophobic) surfaces. The adhesive force is about 20 times greater than the gravitational force tending to detach each foot of an inverted aphid.

 

"2. The mechanism of adhesion was considered. Direct van der Waals forces and viscous force were shown to be trivial and electrostatic force and muscularforce were shown to be improbable. An adhesive force resulting from surface tension at an air-fluid interface was shown to be adequate and likely.

 

"3. Evidence was collected that the working fluid of the adhesive organ has the properties of a dilute aqueous solution of a surfactant. There is a considerable reserve of fluid, presumably in the cuticle of the adhesive organ." (Dixon et al. 1990:243)


  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.
  • Dixon AFG; Croghan PC; Gowing RP. 1990. The mechanism by which aphids adhere to smooth surfaces. Journal of Experimental Biology. 152(1): 243-253.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Aphis fabae

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 20 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTTATAATTAATAAC------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GGAACAGGAACAGGATGAACTATTTATCCACCCCTATCAAATAATATTGCCCATAATAATATTTCAGTTGATTTA---ACTATTTTTTCCCTTCATCTAGCAGGTATTTCATCAATTTTAGGAGCAATTAATTTTGTTTGCACTATTTTAAATATAATACCTAATAATATAAAATTAAATCAAATTCCCCTATTTCCATGATCAATCTTAATTACAGCCATATTATTAATTTTATCCTTACCAGTTTTAGCTGGT---GCTATTACTATATTATTAACTGATCGAAATTTAAATACATCATTTTTTGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGAGATCCAATTCTTTATCAACATTTATTTTGATTTTTTGGACATCCAGAAGTTTATATTTTAATTTTACCTGGATTTGGATTAATTTCACATATTATTAGTCAAGAAAGAAATAAAAAT---GAAACATTTGGTAATATTAGAATAATTTATGCAATATTAACTATTGGATTACTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATATTTACAATCGGAATAGACGTTGATACACGAGCCTACTTTACATCAGCAACTATAATTATTGCTATTCCAACAGGAATCAAAATTTTTAGATGACTA---GCAACTATTTATGGATCT---AAAATTAATTTTTCACCATCAACAATTTGAGCCTTAGGATTTATTTTTCTATTTACAATTGGGGGATTAACAGGAGTAATTCTTGCTAATTCATCTATTGATATTATTCTTCATGATACTTATTATGTAGTAGCACATTTTCACTATGTA---TTATCAATAGGGATTGTATTTGCAATTATTGCCAGTTTAATCCATTGATTTCCAATTTTCACAGGATTCTCAATAAACAATTTTATTTTAAAAATCCAATTTATTTTAATATTTATTGGAGTTAATATAACTTTCTTCCCTCAACATTTTTTAGGTTTAAATGGTATACCTCGA---CGATATTCAGATTACCCGAATAACTTTTTA---CTATGAAATATAATTTCATCAATTGGATCAATAATCTCAACATTTAGAATTATTATTTTAATTTATTCGATTTGAAATAGAATTTTTTTAAAAAAAATAACA---ATTTTTAAATTAAATTTAAGA---AAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Aphis fabae

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 23
Specimens with Barcodes: 136
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Status

Not threatened (1).
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Threats

This aphid is not threatened.
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Management

Conservation

Conservation action is not required for this species.
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Wikipedia

Black bean aphid

The black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) is a tiny black insect with a broad, soft body, a member of the order Homoptera. Other common names include blackfly, bean aphid and beet leaf aphid.[1] In the warmer months of the year it is found in large numbers on the underside of leaves and on the growing tips of host plants including various agricultural crops and many wild and ornamental plants. Both winged and wingless forms exist and at this time of year, they are all females. They suck sap from stems and leaves and causes distortion of the shoots, stunted plants, reduced yield and spoiled crops. This aphid also acts as a vector for viruses that cause plant disease and the honeydew it secretes may encourage the growth of sooty mould. It breeds profusely by live birth but its numbers are kept in check, especially in the later part of the summer, by various predatory and parasitic insects. Ants feed on the honeydew it produces and take active steps to remove the aphid's enemies. It is a widely distributed pest of agricultural crops and can be controlled by chemical or biological means. In the autumn, winged forms move to different host plants where both males and females are produced. These mate and the females lay eggs which overwinter.

Taxonomy[edit]

The specific name of the black bean aphid, "fabae" comes from the Latin faba meaning a "bean", a plant on which this aphid often feeds. Aphis fabae is in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the insecta (hexapoda) phylum/division, and order Homoptera. Homoptera consists of insects with sucking mouthparts. It is included within the suborder Sternorrhyncha which includes the aphids, whiteflies, scale insects and psyllids. These are characterised by being herbivorous and by having two pairs of membranous wings without any hardening of the forewing.[2] The family Aphididae, the aphids or plantlice, consists of small, soft-bodied, pear-shaped insects which have a pair of short cornicles protruding from their last abdominal segment. The genus Aphis consist of about four hundred species, many of which are specific to a single group of plant hosts. Aphis fabae is included in the subgenus Aphis.[3]

Fauna Europaea lists six subspecies:[3]

  • Aphis (Aphis) fabae cirsiiacanthoidis
  • Aphis (Aphis) fabae eryngii
  • Aphis (Aphis) fabae evonymi
  • Aphis (Aphis) fabae fabae
  • Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi
  • Aphis (Aphis) fabae solanella

Description[edit]

Wingless aphids feeding on a stem

The black bean aphid is a small, soft-bodied insect that has specialised piercing and sucking mouthparts which are used to suck the juice from plants. This aphid is usually seen in large numbers and is a tiny, plump insect about two millimetres long with a small head and bulbous abdomen. The body is blackish or dark green in colour. Many adults are devoid of wings, a state known as aptery. Winged forms, known as alates, are longer and more slender than aptates and have shiny black heads and thoraxes. The membranous wings of the alates are held angled over the body. The antennae are less than two thirds of the length of the body and both they and the legs are pale yellow in colour with black tips. The tibiae of the hind legs are swollen in egg-laying females. Near the rear of the abdomen are a pair of slender, elongate tubes known as cornicles or siphunculi. Their function is the production of a defensive waxy secretion. They are twice as long as the finger-like tail and both are brownish-black.[1][4]

Life cycle[edit]

Winged adult

The black bean aphid is holocyclic. This means that it has a life cycle including both sexual and asexual generations. It is also heteroecious meaning that there is an alternation of hosts at different times of year. The primary host plants are woody shrubs and eggs are laid on these by winged females in the autumn. The adults then die and it is the eggs that overwinter. The aphids that hatch from these eggs in the spring are wingless females known as stem mothers. These are able to reproduce asexually giving birth to live offspring known as nymphs through the process of parthenogenesis.[5] The life span of a parthenogenetic female is about fifty days and during this period, each can produce as many as thirty young.[6] The offspring are also females and able to reproduce without mating but further generations are usually winged forms. These migrate to their secondary host plants, completely different species that are typically herbaceous plants with soft, young growth.[1][5][6]

Further parthenogenesis takes place on these new hosts on the under sides of leaves and on the growing tips. All the offspring are female at this time of year and large populations of aphids develop rapidly with both winged and wingless forms produced throughout the summer. Winged individuals develop as a response to overcrowding and they disperse to new host plants and other crops. By mid summer, the number of predators and parasites has built up and aphid populations cease to expand.[7] As autumn approaches, the winged forms migrate back to the primary host plants. Here, both males and sexual females are produced parthogenetically, mating takes place and these females lay eggs in crevices and under lichen to complete the life cycle. Each female can lay six to ten black eggs which can survive temperatures as low as −32 °C (−26 °F).[1][5][6] More than 40% of the eggs probably survive the winter but some are eaten by birds or flower bugs and others fail to hatch in the spring.[8]

Host plants[edit]

Aphids adopting a characteristic stance when feeding on a broad bean stalk

The black bean aphid is polyphagous, meaning that it can feed on a wide variety of host plants. Its primary hosts on which the eggs overwinter are shrubs such as the spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus), the Viburnum (Viburnum spp.) or the mock-orange (Philadelphus spp.). Its secondary hosts, on which it spends the summer months, include a number of crops including sugar beet, spinach, beans, runner beans, celery, potatoes, sunflowers, carrots, artichokes, tobacco and tomatoes. It colonises more than two hundred different species of cultivated and wild plants. Among the latter it shows a preference for poppies (Papaver spp.), burdock (Arctium tomentonum), fat-hen (Chenopodium album), saltbush (Atriplex rosea), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), thistles (Cirsium arvense)[6] and docks (Rumex spp.).[7]

Research undertaken to study host preferences found that two conflicting factors were involved, the kind of leaf and the age of the leaf. Offered spindle and beet leaves on growing plants throughout the year, winged aphids moved from one to the other depending on the active growth state of each and the senescence of each host plant. Thus in late summer and autumn, the beet leaves were old and unattractive to the aphids in comparison with the leaves of the spindle whereas in spring, the young unfolding leaves of the beet were more attractive than those of the spindle.[9]

Damage[edit]

The black bean aphid is a major pest of sugar beet, bean and celery crops with large numbers of aphids cause stunting of the plants. Beans suffer damage to flowers and pods which may not develop properly. Early sown crops may avoid significant damage if they have already flowered before the number of aphids builds up in the spring.[7] Celery can be heavily infested. The plants are stunted by the removal of sap, the stems are distorted, harmful viruses are transmitted and aphid residues may contaminate the crop. [10] As a result of infestation by this aphid, leaves of sugar beet become swollen, roll and cease developing. The roots grow poorly and the sugar content is reduced. In some other plants the leaves do not become distorted but growth is affected and flowers abort due to the action of the toxic saliva injected by the aphid to improve the flow of sap.[1]

In order to obtain enough protein, aphids need to suck large volumes of sap. The excess fluid is known as honeydew and is secreted by the aphids. It adheres to plants where it promotes growth of sooty moulds. These are unsightly, reduce the surface area of the plant available for photosynthesis and may reduce the value of the crop. These aphids are also the vectors of about thirty plant viruses, mostly of the non-persistent variety. The aphids may not be the original source of infection but are instrumental in spreading the virus through the crop.[7] Various chemical treatments are available to kill the aphids and organic growers can use a solution of soft soap.[10]

Ecology[edit]

Wasp laying egg inside an aphid's body
Aphids tended by ants

Natural predators of black bean aphids include both adults and larvae of ladybirds and lacewings and the larvae of hoverflies.[10] Certain species of tiny parasitic wasp lay their eggs inside aphids and the developing wasp larvae devour their hosts from inside. Members of the wasp genera Diaeretiella and Lysiphlebus behave in this way and may provide a measure of control of the aphids.[10]

Ants climb the host plants and feed on the honeydew secreted by the aphids. Many species of ant have developed behaviours to enable them to protect and encourage their aphids. The black garden ant (Lasius niger) for example will remove predators such as ladybirds from the vicinity of aphids thus keeping its "milch cows" safe.[11] The effects of this protection was shown in a research study. On a test plot of field beans (Vicia faba) it was found that plants without black bean aphids yielded an average of 56 seeds per plant, those with aphids and no ants yielded 17 seeds while those with both ants and aphids averaged 8 seeds per plant.[12]

Distribution[edit]

The black bean aphid may have originated in Europe and Asia but it is now one of the most widely distributed species of aphid. It is found throughout temperate areas of Western Europe, Asia and North America and in the cooler parts of Africa, the Middle East and South America.[13] In the warmer parts of its range, apterous individuals can survive the winter and it may continue to reproduce asexually all year round.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Beet leaf aphid, Bean aphid, Black bean aphid". HYPP Zoology. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  2. ^ Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, Richard, S.; Barnes, Robert D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology, 7th edition. Cengage Learning. p. 748. ISBN 81-315-0104-3. 
  3. ^ a b "Aphis (Aphis) fabae Scopoli 1763". Fauna Europaea. 2004-09-27. Retrieved 2013-01-05. 
  4. ^ "Black bean aphid (Aphis fabae)". ARKive. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  5. ^ a b c Chinery, Michael (1993). Collins Field Guide to the Insects of Britain and Northern Europe. Harper Collins. ISBN 0002199181. 
  6. ^ a b c d Berim, M. N. (2009). "Aphis fabae Scopoli - Black Bean Aphid". Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries. AgroAtlas. Retrieved 2013-01-03. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Black bean aphid". Rothamsted Insect Research. Rothamsted Research. Retrieved 2013-01-03. 
  8. ^ Way, M. J.; Banks, C. J. (1964). "Natural mortality of eggs of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop., on the spindle tree, Euonymus europaeus L". Annals of Applied Biology 54 (2): 255–267. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1964.tb01189.x. 
  9. ^ Kennedy, J. S.; Booth, C. O. (1951). "Host alternation in Aphis fabae Scop. I. feeding preferences and fecundity in relation to the age and kind of leaves". Annals of Applied Biology 38 (1): 25–64. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1951.tb07788.x. 
  10. ^ a b c d Godfrey, L. D.; Trumble, J. T. (2009). "UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Celery". UC IPM Online. Retrieved 2013-01-03. 
  11. ^ Banks, C. J. (1962). "Effects of the ant Lasius niger (L.) on insects preying on small populations of Aphis fabae Scop. on bean plants". Annals of Applied Biology 50 (4): 669–679. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1962.tb06067.x. 
  12. ^ Banks, C. J.; Macaulay, E. D. M. (1967). "Effects of Aphis fabae Scop, and of its attendant ants and insect predators on yields of field beans (Vicia faba L.)". Annals of Applied Biology 60 (3): 445–453. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1967.tb04499.x. 
  13. ^ "Aphis fabae". AphID. 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
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