Regularity: Regularly occurring
Localities documented in Tropicos sources
United States (North America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1103
Global Range: Current range: central Molokai; historically no additional range.
Comments: Moist shrublands on steep rocky slopes.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Comments: 1 current (between 1982 and 1997) and 1 historical occurrence.
Date Listed: 10/08/1992
Lead Region: Pacific Region (Region 1)
Listing status: E
For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Silene alexandri, see its USFWS Species Profile
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This species is endemic to the island of Molokai. It has been recorded from only 3 locations, all within a 4 km stretch. Only 2 of these populations are known to be extant, with a total of fewer than 50 plants. The species is threatened by feral goats and pigs, alien plants, and the possibility of fire.
Comments: Threats include fire, alien vegetation and feral ungulates.
Biological Research Needs: Population biology and ecology.
Silene alexandri is a rare species of flowering plant in the pink family known by the common names Kamalo Gulch catchfly and Alexander's catchfly. It is endemic to Hawaii, where it is known only from the island of Molokai. It is threatened by the degradation of its habitat and it is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.
This subshrub grows 30 to 60 centimeters tall and bears white flowers. It grows in moist lowland shrubland on the sides of steep basalt cliffs. The plant has only been seen on a four-kilometer-long stretch of the island of Molokai. Today only one small population of six plants is thought to remain.
This plant is threatened by invasive species of introduced plants in its habitat, including lantana (Lantana camara), molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora), and Natal grass (Rhyncelytrum repens). The habitat is degraded by feral goats. Also, the species faces the loss of reproductive vigor because so few individuals remain in the breeding pool.
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Names and Taxonomy
Comments: GENUS WIDELY DISTRIBUTED IN NORTH TEMPERATE REGIONS, ESPECIALLY MEDITERRANEAN REGION. SPECIES ENDEMIC TO MOLOKAI.