Overview

Brief Summary

Ecology

Benthic, inshore, detritus feeder, deposit feeder. General distribution: tropical, Indo-west Pacific Ocean, depth range 0-23 m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995).
  • Rowe, F.W.E & Gates, J. (1995). Echinodermata. In ‘Zoological Catalogue of Australia’. 33 (Ed A. Wells.) pp xiii + 510 (CSIRO Australia, Melbourne.)
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Distribution

Also distributed in SE Arabia, Ceylon, Bay of Bengal, East Indies, north Australia, Philippine, China, south Japan and South Pacific Is. (Clark & Rowe, 1971); Australia (Rowe & Gates, 1995).
  • Cherbonnier, G. (1988). Echinodermes: Holothurides. Faune de Madagascar 70: 1-292.
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Range Description

This species can be found in the Western Pacific Region (Kinch et al. 2008), East Africa and Central Indian Ocean region (Conand 2008), as well as in the Asian region although it is considered rare in some locations (i.e. Taiping Islands and Taiwan Province of China) (Choo 2008).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a nocturnal species that prefers hard substrates between 0-20m (Kinch et al. 2008). The ecology of this species is poorly known, but it is common in shallow water. In the daytime, it is found under large stones, in gaps in reef slopes or in sheltered areas (Rasolofonirina pers. comm. 2010). In Kenya, this species is often found grazing on live and dead coral (Samyn 2000). However, nothing is known about the biology of this species.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 13
  Temperature range (°C): 25.567 - 26.987
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.090 - 0.156
  Salinity (PPS): 34.975 - 35.099
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.620 - 4.666
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.131 - 0.201
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.005 - 3.887

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 13

Temperature range (°C): 25.567 - 26.987

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.090 - 0.156

Salinity (PPS): 34.975 - 35.099

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.620 - 4.666

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.131 - 0.201

Silicate (umol/l): 1.005 - 3.887
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Actinopyga lecanora

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AAACGCTGATTATTTTCCACAAACCACAAGGACATAGGAACTCTCTATCTTATATTTGGTGCCTGAGCAGGAATGGTGGGTACCGCAATG---AGAGTTATTATCCGAACAGAATTAGCTCAACCTGGATCACTATTACAAGAT---GACCAAGTATACAAAGTAGTAGTCACAGCACACGCCCTAGTAATGATATTCTTTATGGTAATGCCAATCATGATAGGAGGATTCGGAAAATGGCTCATTCCCTTGATG---ATAGGAGCTCCTGACATGGCCTTCCCTCGAATGAAAAAAATGAGATTCTGACTAGTCCCACCATCCTTTGTTCTCTTACTAGCTTCCGCTGGAGTAGAAAGAGGAGCAGGAACGGGATGAACAATTTATCCACCACTATCTAGAAAAATAGCTCACGCAGGAGGATCAGTAGATCTA---GCAATATTTTCATTACATCTAGCTGGAGCCTCTTCAATATTAGCTTCTATAAATTTTATAACAACGATCATAAACATGCGAACCCCCGGAATTACCTTTGACCGACTCCCTCTATTCGTATGATCCGTCTTTATAACAGCATTTCTTTTATTATTAAGACTACCCGTTCTAGCTGGC---GCTATAACAATGTTATTAACAGACCGAAATATAAAAACAACATTTTTTGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCTATCTTATTCCAACATCTGTTCTGATTTTTTGGTCACCCAGAAGTGTATATTTTAATTTTACCAGGATTCGGTATGATATCCCATGTAATAGCTCACTATAGAGGAAAGCAA---GAACCATTTGGATATTTAGGTATGGTCTACGCTATGGTAGCTATAGGAATATTAGGCTTTCTAGTATGAGCCCACCATATG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Actinopyga lecanora

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Conand, C., Gamboa, R. & Purcell, S.

Reviewer/s
Polidoro, B., Harwell, H., Carpenter, K.E. & Knapp, L.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific, and is considered rare or uncommon but may be more common in the eastern portion of its range. It is fished in at least the eastern portion of its range, but there is no information on the impact of fisheries on this species' population. This species is not well-known in fisheries reports from the Philippines or the Indian Ocean, which may be because it is nocturnal. Therefore it is listed as Data Deficient. More information is needed on the impact of fisheries on this species' population, as well as information on its biology and ecology.
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Population

Population
This species is not common and occurs in very low densities.

In the Philippines, annual exports increased from 250t in 1977 and 1189t in 1984 to 2123t in 1996 for 25 species including H. scabra, H. nobilis, B. marmorata, H. fuscogilva, H. atra and A. lecanora (Bruckner et al. 2003).

A 2009 study by Purcell et al. suggests that populations of Holothuria fuscogilva, Holothuria lessoni and Actinopyga lecanora in la Grande Terre, New Caledonia are too low to support further exploitation, and should be closed to fishing.

In Melanesia, population surveys conducted registered very low numbers of commercially important species of sea cucumbers, including A. lecanora (Kinch et al. 2008). In Papua New Guinea, population densities are low (Kinch et al. 2008).

Choo (2008) reports that A. lecanora is heavily fished in certain countries including those of Asia.

In Papua New Guinea, densities declined from 3 individuals per hectare in 1992 to 0.2 per hectare in 1996 (Kaly et al. 2007).

This species was found in 2006 from 3 to 42 individuals per hectare in the Solomon Islands (Pinca et al. 2009). In 2002-2009 in Fiji, this species was reported as 0 to 29 individuals during the day, and up to 50-67 individuals at night per hectare (Friedman et al. 2010).


Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is fished commercially in parts of its distribution and is present in artisanal fisheries throughout its entire distribution. However, the effects of this activity on the population of this species are unknown. Although this is not one of the most important species (medium value) for fishery purposes, it can be expected that this species may become more popular after the depletion or reduction of other species of higher commercial importance and value.



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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Papua New Guinea, Actinopyga lecanora has a minimum size limit of 15cm total length if fresh and 10cm total length if dry, a fishing season (between January 16th and September 30th), Total Allowable Catch restrictions, gear restrictions and permits for storage and export (Kinch et al. 2008). A. lecanora has a distribution that directly overlaps several marine protected areas throughout its extensive range. More information is needed on the impact of fisheries on this species population, as well as information on its biology and ecology.
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