Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in the Mediterranean and surrounding Atlantic waters, from Algeria, Croatia, France, Gibraltar, Italy, Montenegro, Portugal and Turkey.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in seagrass beds with larger individuals occurring at the deepest depths of the beds (Bulteel et al. 1992, Coulon and Jangoux 1993). This species is a deposit-feeder that ingests superficial sediment and feeds on non-living detritus and associated microorganisms (Coulon and Jangoux 1993).

In the Adriatic Sea, the reproductive cycle of this species is a clear annual pattern and is synchronous in both sexes. In this area, spawning occurrs during the warm season, from July to September, when the surface water temperature ranges from about 22oC to 26oC. From October to January individuals are in resting phase and have no gonads (Despalatovic et al. 2004).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 58 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 57 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5.5 - 53
  Temperature range (°C): 16.269 - 19.203
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.729 - 1.692
  Salinity (PPS): 37.543 - 37.969
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.242 - 5.382
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.145 - 0.246
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.778 - 3.188

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5.5 - 53

Temperature range (°C): 16.269 - 19.203

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.729 - 1.692

Salinity (PPS): 37.543 - 37.969

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.242 - 5.382

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.145 - 0.246

Silicate (umol/l): 1.778 - 3.188
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Holothuria tubulosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at British Antarctic Survey
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Samyn, Y.

Reviewer/s
Knapp, L., Polidoro, B., Carpenter, K.E. & Harwell, H.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is relatively widespread in the Mediterranean Sea. It is a common species in much of its distribution and is considered abundant in parts of its distribution. It is fished on a small scale in Turkey, but this activity is not known to detrimentally affect its population. More research is needed on the deep water habitat of this species. It is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species is very common, even locally very abundant. It represents a significant part of the macrozoobenthic biomass in the seagrass beds of the Mediterranean (Coulon and Jangoux 1993).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known major threats to this species at this time. This species is a commercial species in the Mediterranean (Aydin 2008, Antoniadou and Vafidis 2011 ), but it is not known how fishing may be affecting its population.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species specific conservation measures for this species. It likely occurs in marine protected areas due to its shallow water, coastal distribution. More research is needed on the habitat of this species.
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Wikipedia

Holothuria tubulosa

Holothuria tubulosa, the cotton-spinner or tubular sea cucumber, is a species of sea cucumber in the family Holothuriidae. It is the type species of the genus Holothuria and is placed in the subgenus Holothuria, making its full name Holothuria (Holothuria) tubulosa.[1]

Description[edit]

Holothuria tubulosa grows to a length of between 20 centimetres (7.9 in) and 45 centimetres (18 in), and a diameter of 6 centimetres (2.4 in). It is roughly cylindrical with a flattened base on which there are three longitudinal rows of tube feet. It has a tough, leathery skin. The general colour is a shade of brown and the surface is covered with numerous dark-coloured, conical, thorn-like projections known as papillae. It often appears greyish, as it secretes a protective film of mucus to which bits of seaweed and sediment may adhere. It has a fringe of short, flattened tentacles around the mouth at the anterior end and an anus at the posterior end.[2][3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Holothuria tubulosa is found in temperate regions of the eastern Atlantic Ocean as far north as the Bay of Biscay, in the Mediterranean Sea, where it is abundant. It is found on sandy seabeds, among seagrass (Posidonia spp.) and on muddy rocks to a depth of about 100 metres (330 ft).[1][2]

Biology[edit]

Male Holothuria tubulosa releasing sperm

Holothuria tubulosa feeds on detritus, algae and plankton.[4] It uses its tube feet to move across the surface or adhere to rocks.[2]

Holothuria tubulosa is dioecious, with each individual being either male or female but with no difference between them in external appearance. In a study in the Mediterranean Sea, a mass spawning event was observed in the afternoons of the two days in August 2003 that coincided with the full moon. Large numbers of mature individuals simultaneously adopted the spawning position, rearing their anterior ends up and leaving only the hind third of their body in contact with the seabed. This raises their genital orifices, situated just below the mouth, clear of the substrate to allow for maximum dispersal of the gametes. First, some individuals, believed to be males, emitted a whitish fluid which gradually dispersed in the surrounding water. Next, a smaller number of individuals, believed to be female, emitted a more viscous fluid, perhaps in response to the release of the male gametes. Each release lasted about 30 minutes. The necessary conditions for spawning seemed to be a full moon and a sea temperature of about 25 °C (77 °F).[3]

The fertilised eggs hatch in about 24 hours and the developing larvae are planktonic. They feed on microscopic algae and pass through several stages over the course of a few weeks before settling on the seabed and undergoing metamorphosis into juveniles.[5]

Uses[edit]

Sea cucumbers are used for food in some countries, particularly Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Korea and Norway. There is a commercial fishery in Turkey and a closed season is imposed in August and September to allow the animals to spawn. Holothuria tubulosa is one of the species collected by divers, who can gather 2000 to 3000 in a day. The sea cucumbers are either sun dried, oven dried, or frozen before being exported.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Paulay, Gustav (2010). "Holothuria (Holothuria) tubulosa Gmelin, 1791". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 
  2. ^ a b c Holothuria tubulosa EuropeanMarineLife. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
  3. ^ a b Ocana, A. & L. Sanchez Tocino (2005). "Spawning of Holothuria tubulosa (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata) in the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean Sea)". Zool. baetica 16: 147–150. 
  4. ^ Sea cucumber
  5. ^ Sea cucumber culture Brief introduction to mariculture of five selected species in China. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
  6. ^ The commercial sea cucumber fishery in Turkey Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
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