Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is known from China and Indonesia to French Polynesia. There is a record from the Red Sea, that may be a misidentification of B. atra.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Also distributed in Celebes (Selenka, 1867); Ceylon, Bay of Bengal, East Indies, north Australia, Philippine, China, south Japan and South Pacific Is. (Clark & Rowe, 1971); India (Sastry, 1996); Australia (Rowe & Gates, 1995). Ecology: benthic, inshore, detritus feeder, deposit feeder. General distribution: tropical, Indo-west Pacific Ocean, depth range 0-20 m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995).
  • Cherbonnier, G. (1988). Echinodermes: Holothurides. Faune de Madagascar 70: 1-292.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found on coral reefs and in lagoons and estuaries. It is typically found between 0 and 20m, but sometimes is found to 30m (Conand 1989). Sexual reproduction takes place in one clear seasonal peak per year, probably during the warm season. In New Caledonia, this species spawns in December whilst in the Great Barrier Reef it spawns in June (Kinch et al. 2008).

In the Western Central Pacific, this species prefers barrier reef flats and slopes, or outer lagoons on white sand between 0 and 30m (Kinch et al. 2008); in China it lives among coral reefs between 10 and 50m (Li 2004). Purcell et al. (2009) found that in New Caledonia this species was most commonly found on sand at the base of reef structures in sheltered habitats on lagoon reefs and barrier reefs.

This species is known to host symbiotic fish (Carapus and Encheliophis spp.) in their cloacae (Li 2004).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 134 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 127 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 15
  Temperature range (°C): 25.567 - 28.552
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.033 - 0.206
  Salinity (PPS): 34.133 - 35.083
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.497 - 4.643
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.067 - 0.214
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.089 - 3.887

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 15

Temperature range (°C): 25.567 - 28.552

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.033 - 0.206

Salinity (PPS): 34.133 - 35.083

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.497 - 4.643

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.067 - 0.214

Silicate (umol/l): 1.089 - 3.887
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Bohadschia argus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AACCGCTGACTTTTTTCCACAAATCACAAGGACATAGGAACTCTATATCTCATATTCGGAGCTTGAGCAGGAATGGTAGGAACTGCCATG---AGAGTTATCATACGAACAGAACTCGCTCAACCCGGATCACTGCTTCAAGAC---GACCAAATATATAAAGTAATAGTAACCGCTCACGCTTTAGTGATGATTTTCTTCATGGTAATGCCAATAATGATAGGAGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTTATACCTCTAATG---ATAGGAGCCCCTGATATGGCATTCCCCCGAATGAACAAAATGAGCTTCTGGTTAGTCCCTCCCTCTTTCATTCTACTCCTAGCATCAGCAGGAGTGGAAAGAGGTGTCGGAACCGGATGAACAATTTACCCACCCTTATCCAGAAAAATAGCCCACGCCGGAGGGTCAGTAGACCTC---GCTATTTTTTCTCTACATCTAGCAGGAGCCTCTTCCATACTGGCCTCCATAAAATTTATAACAACTATCATAAATATGCGCACTCCAGGAATAACTTTTGACCGCCTTCCATTATTCGTATGATCTGTATTCATAACTGCATTTCTTCTTCTCCTCAGCCTACCAGTGCTAGCAGGA---GCTATAACTATGCTCTTAACGGACCGGAACATAAAAACAACCTTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGGGATCCCATCTTGTTCCAACACTTATTCTGGTTCTTCGGACACCCAGAAGTGTACATACTTATTTTACCTGGGTTCGGAATGATATCCCATGTCATTGCTCACTACAGAGGAAAGCAA---GAACCATTCGGATACCTCGGAATGGTTTACGCCATGGTAGCCATAGGGATACTAGGATTCTTAGTATGAGCTCACCACATG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bohadschia argus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Museum of Tropical Queensland
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Conand, C., Gamboa, R. & Purcell, S.

Reviewer/s
Polidoro, B., Carpenter, K.E., Knapp, L. & Harwell, H.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is relatively widespread in the tropical Pacific, and is fairly common and occurs in deeper waters. It is opportunistically fished in some parts of its range (Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia), but is less fished other parts of its range (New Caledonia, Australia) due to its relatively low commercial value. It is considered common in many parts of its range. It is listed as Least Concern. However, this species could be more intensively harvested in the near future as high value species are depleted.
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Population

Population

This species is considered to be very common.

In 1978, Tuvalu registered commercial densities of B. argus; whilst in Fafaofo Atoll, B. argus was recorded in moderately high densities; in Palmerston Atoll, B. argus was sparse (Kinch et al. 2008). In East New Britain, Papua New Guinea, there were 18ind*ha-1 (Kinch et al. 2008)

Eriksson (2006) used species-specific transect data to estimate an average population density of 5 individuals of this species per hectare in Samoan lagoons. They were present in 22 of 297 transects.

Population density for this species was estimated at 4.2 individuals per hectare in the Solomon Islands in 1992 (http://www.spc.org.nc/coastfish/reports/ifrp/solomon/SURVEY.xls).

This species is part of a small export fishery (2.13t 1990) in Palau (Bruckner et al. 2003).

In Thailand, populations of this species have decreased in fishing areas (Bruckner et al. 2003).

Populations of this species never reach high densities (generally between 0.001 and 0.01 individual per square meter) (SeaLifeBase).

Purcell et al. (2009) found this species at moderate abundances of estimated 1,000 to 3,000 ind*km-2 at 6 sites in New Caledonia, and it is currently rarely fished due to its low value.

In PNG, estimates in 1992 were 5 individuals per hectare and in 2006 estimates were 3.7 individuals per hectare (Kaly et al. 2007).

In Bolinao, Philippines density is 0.4 individuals per hectare (Menez in press).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Excessive commercial harvest is a potential threat as harvest increases, but current commercial value is low (Toral-Granda 2006). According to Skewes et al. (2004) this species is exploited in Torres Straight for a medium commercial value.

In Indonesia this species is heavily fished, whilst in other parts it may be under potential fishing threats. In Vietnam, original catches have decreased, and now due to the sharp decline of stocks in the area there is not much fishing activity. There is illegal fishing for sea cucumbers in the Cambodian side of the Phu Quoc Archipelago (Choo 2008). In Tanzania, there is an active fishery for B. atra, which is often called B. argus.

In Kiribati, a sea cucumber fishery boomed between 2000-2002 but now is considered depleted. Target species of this fishery included this species. In Samoa, between 1993-1994, this species comprised 19% of the exports. The fishery stalled after 1994 with few species sold for aquarium use.

Generally, sea cucumbers are caught in shallow waters either by free diving or using large poles or lead bombs, but as these populations decreased, hookah diving replaces free diving activities (i.e. Vietnam) (Choo 2008)

Although not one of the most important species (low value) for fishery purposes, it can be expected that this species may become more popular after the depletion or reduction of other species of higher commercial importance and value.

Many sea cucumbers are broadcast spawners, which can limit the fertilization success of a species in exploited populations.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

In Papua New Guinea, this species has a minimum landing size of 20cm TL and a dry landing size of 10cm TL (Kinch et al. 2008).

With the inclusion of I. fuscus in CITES Appendix III, a debate started whether the conservation of this group may be addressed with their inclusion in one of CITES appendices. The debate started in Conference of the Parties (CoP) 12 (Santiago, Chile) and extended to CoP 14 (The Hague, Netherlands). No recent advances have been achieved on this matter. For a revision of the possible pros and cons of a CITES listing, please see Toral-Granda (2007).
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Wikipedia

Bohadschia argus

Bohadschia argus, the leopard sea cucumber, is a species of marine invertebrate in the family Holothuriidae. It is the type species of the genus Bohadschia; Jaeger, 1833.

Description[edit source | edit]

Emperor shrimp on Bohadschia argus

Bohadschia argus is sausage-shaped with a smooth, tough, leathery skin and can grow to 2 feet (0.61 m) in length. It is a greyish-brown colour, paler below, with distinctive dark eye-spots surrounded by white haloes. There are several rows of tube feet on the underside. Surrounding the mouth at the anterior end is a ring of paddle-shaped, black tentacles fringed with white. The anus, at the posterior end, has cuvierian tubules situated at its base which are readily ejected as sticky threads if the animal is disturbed or handled. These contain toxins which deter predators and are irritating to human skin.[2][3]

Distribution and habitat[edit source | edit]

Bohadschia argus is found in the Western Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Its range extends from Madagascar, the Seychelles and Sri Lanka to Malaysia and the South Pacific Islands.[4] It is found on coral reefs and on exposed, sandy areas of the seabed [2] at depths of between 10 feet (3.0 m) and 120 feet (37 m).[5]

Biology[edit source | edit]

Bohadschia argus is an omnivore. As it moves across the seabed, it sweeps sand grains and detritus into its mouth using its sticky tentacles. It obtains some nourishment from the biofilm that coats the grains.[3]

Ecology[edit source | edit]

Fish of the species Carapus mourlani are sometimes found living in the coelomic cavity of Bohadschia argus; the fish enter through the anus, either going in head first or more frequently tail first. In a study in the Banda Islands in the South Moluccan Sea, 15 individual fish were found to be inhabiting the body of one sea cucumber 40 centimetres (16 in) in length.[6]

The small emperor shrimp (Periclimenes imperator) is often associated with Bohadschia argus and may help keep it clear of ectoparasites.

Uses[edit source | edit]

A new triterpene glycoside, Arguside A, has been extracted from the tissues of Bohadschia argus. This compound appears to exhibit cytotoxicity against several different types of human tumour cells.[7]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Paulay, Gustav (2010). "Bohadschia argus Jaeger, 1833". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-01-19. 
  2. ^ a b Bohadschia argus North Australian Sea Cucumbers. Retrieved 2012-01-18.
  3. ^ a b Bohadschia argus DiveGallery. Retrieved 2012-01-18.
  4. ^ Bohadschia genus WetWebMedia. Retrieved 2012-01-18.
  5. ^ Leopard sea cucumber Florent’s guide to the tropical reefs. Retrieved 2012-01-18.
  6. ^ Meyer-Rochow, VB (1977). "Comparison between 15 Caropus mourlani in a single Holothurian and 19 C. mourlani from starfish". Copeia 1977 (3): 582. JSTOR 1443286. 
  7. ^ Liu, Bao-Shu et al. (2007). "Arguside A: A New Cytotoxic Triterpene Glycoside from the Sea Cucumber Bohadschia argus". Chemistry & Biodiversity 4 (12): 2845–2851. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790234. 
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