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19. Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. Figs 3C, 12A, B

Moquin-Tandon, Chenop. monogr. enum.: 23 (1840). - Described from Mexico.

C. berlandieri subsp. zschackei (Murr) A. Zobel (1909) .

F teksasinsavikka. N texasmelde. S texasmålla .

Therophyte (summer-annual). 30-70(-200) cm. Stem subangular, pale yellow, often striped, sometimes with small red spots in the axils, rarely reddish, hard, erect, branched in the upper part. Leaves with petiole c. 2/3 the length of the blade; blade suborbicular, broadly ovate or ovate to rhombic or trullate (sometimes narrow),

2-6 cm, green to yellowish, ± farinose; base ± cuneate; apex acuminate (except in the lowermost and sometimes in the widest leaves); each margin with 1-2 obtuse, sometimes lobe-like teeth at about the middle, entire in the basal half and entire to few-toothed in the apical part. Bracts elliptic or ovate to lanceolate, entire or sometimes slightly 3-lobed; apex distinctly acuminate; margin entire.

Inflorescences bracteate close to the top, often whitish-farinose especially when young, spike-like to narrowly panicle-like; glomerules usually dense. Flowers bisexual or female. Tepals 5, connate halfway, farinose, winged, with wide membranous margin; apex obtuse to acute. Stamens 5. Stigmas 2, to 1 mm. Seed orbicular in outline, 1.2-1.5 mm; edge rounded; seed-coat black, distinctly honeycomb-pitted. - Summer to autumn.

Fig. 11. Chenopodium . Habit x 0.35, leaf x 0.5. - A: C. striatiforme (01). - B: C. strictum subsp. strictum (U). ILL. MARJA KOISTINEN


Distribution and habitat. Casual (grain mills, ports, railway areas, poultry farms and tips), mainly brought in with grain from North America. - D first record from 1916; NJy �lborg , ØJy Horsens, Vejle, �rhus , SJy �benr� , FyL Assens, Middelfart and Svendborg, Sjæ numerous records from c. 9 localities, especially in the Køben havn area, LFM Maribo, Nykøbing . N several records since 1907, mainly 1959 onwards, from Ak Oslo, Vf Larvik (grain mill), Te Skien and Porsgrunn, AA Arendal, VA Kristiansand (refuse tips), Ro Klepp and Stavanger (grain mill), Ho Ølen , Odda, Bergen and Lindås (poultry farms), SF Jølster (field manured with poultry farm or mill refuse), ST Skaun and Trondheim (grain mills). S Sk c. 10 localities 1908-35, �hus 1986, Kim Kalmar 1917, 1923, SmI Nässjö 1923, HI Halmstad 1917, Falkenberg 1925, BhG many records in the Göte borg area 1902-61, Srm Nyköping 1903, 1911 (with cotton from Texas), Nacka numerous records 1913-31, Stockholm 1922, Upl Järfälla 1915, Sollentuna 1925, Stockholm several records 1917-30, Uppsala 1926, 1929, Mpd Timrå 1889, 1903. F since 1930 (mainly 1950's and 1970's) records from VTurku 1959, Naantali 1975-99, Raisio 1947, U Helsinki 1930-99, St Loimaa 1994, EH Nokia 1983, EP Vaasa, Kn Hyrynsalmi 1985 (road bank) and InL Utsjoki (road bank sown with North American grass seed). I IVe Reykjavik 1946, INo Akureyri 1950.

Chenopodium strictum subsp. strictum

Chenopodium berlandieri

Fig , 12. Chenopodium . Leaves and inflorescence branches x 0.5. - A, B: C. berlandieri {U, Sk> V, EH). - C: C. hircinum ( Sjæ , ØJy , Sjce, U, Sk). - D: C. opulifolium (VO- ILL. MARJA KOISTINEN

North America; in Europe anthropochorous.

Biology. Rarely forming ripe seed in Norden.

Taxonomy. Chenopodium berlandieri is widespread and morphologically variable in North America; several races have been described. Most of the plants collected in Norden (and all over Europe) have been referred to subsp. zschackei (Murr) A. Zobel , which is also the most widespread race in North America and the only one reported from Canada. However, the variation has not been sufficiently studied in North America, and the use of infraspecific names for European casual material is premature. The relationship between C. berlandieri and C. hircinum (20) should be studied (Bassett & Crompton 1982) ; both are tetraploids with 2n=36.

Similar taxa. Chenopodium berlandieri in fruit is easily recognized by the honeycomb-pitted seeds. - In the vegetative state sometimes taken for C. album (15) or C. opulifolium (21), but distinguished from both by the combination of yellowish stem, distinctly acuminate and relatively long leaf-blades with few teeth, and winged tepals. - Sometimes also similar to C. hircinum (20), but not stinking and with narrower, less distinctly 3-lobed leaf-blades.


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