The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. External link.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Knight-Jones, P. & Knight-Jones, E.W., (1977). Taxonomy and ecology of British Spirorbidae (Polychaeta). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 453-499. External link.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
  • Read G., Fauchald K. (Ed.) (2015). WoRMS Polychaeta: World Polychaeta database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Spirorbis borealis
  • WoRMS (2015). Spirorbis (Spirorbis) spirorbis (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2015) World Polychaeta database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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