IUCN threat status:

Not evaluated

Comprehensive Description

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 Eighty-three entire specimens, juveniles to adults, were examined: length 1.9–105.1 mm, width 0.27–4.7 mm (excluding parapodia, measured at chaetiger 4–5) for 16–115 chaetigers. Description based on adult specimens only, defined by the absence of notopodial falcigers.  Colour pale in alcohol.  Body shape depressed dorso-ventrally, mostly of uniform width to posterior, then tapering in last few chaetigers.  Prostomium longer than broad (Fig. 8A), antennae and palps about equal in length; antennae 1/2–1/3 width of palpophores. Four pairs tentacular cirri, postero-dorsal pair longest, reaching to chaetiger 11–14, rarely 16. Two pairs small, dark brown to black eyes, anterior pair marginally smaller, more laterally placed (Fig. 8A). Mid-dorsal nuchal cushion present, projecting forward slightly on to head from apodous peristomial segment (Fig. 8A). Peristomium approximately one third longer than following segments.   Proboscis with tight lines of rod-like paragnaths in Areas III, IV, VI, VII and VIII, absent in Areas I, II and V. Largest group in area IV with up to 9 long rows, innermost 3–4 rows incomplete. Area III with 3 small groups of up to 4 lines in each. Area VI, the smallest group, often faint, difficult to discern, with up to 3 short lines of rods (Fig. 9G, indicated by arrow). Area VII–VIII with 5 groups of up to 3 curved lines in each (Fig. 9I). Jaws dark brown with up to 12 teeth (Fig. 8G, I).   Parapodia subbiramous on chaetigers 1–2, biramous from chaetiger 3. Parapodial ligules thickened and rounded on chaetigers 5–11, sometimes, to a lesser extent, starting from chaetiger 4 and extending to chaetiger 12, occasionally 13, in larger animals (Fig. 8B, C).   From mid-body dorsal ligule lengthened and glandular (Fig. 8D). Dorsal cirrus longer than dorsal ligule throughout body, minorly so anteriorly, becoming more pronounced and elongate posteriorly (Fig. 8B–D).   Notochaetae homogomph spinigers (Fig. 8E), up to 25–30 per fascicle in mid-body, reduced to around 5 in last few chaetigers. Single heterogomph notopodial falciger, bifid with connecting tendon from tip (Fig. 8G), present in juveniles up to around 60–65 chaetiger stage, absent in adults. First occurrence of notopodial falciger retreats posteriorly as size increases, from around chaetiger 8 (of 16) to chaetiger 62 (of 64).   Neurochaetae homogomph and heterogomph spinigers (Fig. 8F) and heterogomph falcigers (Fig. 8H, I). Superior fascicle spinigers homogomph, up to 8, inferior fascicle spinigers heterogomph, up to 6 (usually 2–3). Falcigers heterogomph, from chaetiger 5 onwards; up to 7 above acicula, up to 17 below; greatest numbers mid-body reducing posteriorly.   Pygidium terminal; two long, thin anal cirri inserted ventrally.  Tube soft, with coarse grains of sand, shell and foraminifera adhered to it.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Teresa Darbyshire

Source: ZooKeys

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