Overview

Distribution

West Greenland, Disko Bay (Qeqertarsuup Tunua, Qeqertarssup Tunua, Disko Bugt), South of Godhavn, Greenland
Collection date: August 1926
Kind: type locality
Depth: 250 to 300 m
Substrate: mud
Comments: fine mud

north harbor (Nordhafen), Helgoland Island, Germany
Collection date: May 1963
Depth: 32-33 m
Substrate: coarse sand

Godhavn (Iluilek, K'ekertarssuak, Kekertarsuak, Qeqertarsuaq, Port of Lievely, Qeqertarssuaq), Greenland
Collection date: 1931
Comments: fresh and brackish, pool in Goldhavn (sp?)

Kors Fjord (Korsfjorden, Korsfjord, Krossfjorden), Fjord, near Bergen, Norway
Collection date: Oct 13, 1964
Depth: 690 m
Substrate: mud
Comments: 12 specimens in Norway. 'One specimen contained a large prey turbellarien. 7 adults, 5 with male organ and a mature egg, whereas two were in male phase only' [sample numbers 462-64 (E4)].

Fanafjorden (Fana Fjord, Fanafjord), Fjord, near Bergen, Norway
Collection date: Oct 17, 1964
Depth: 260 m
Substrate: mud
Comments: 12 specimens in Norway. 'One specimen contained a large prey turbellarien. 7 adults, 5 with male organ and a mature egg, whereas two were in male phase only' [sample numbers 462-64 (E6)].

Raunefjorden (Raunefjord, Raune Fjord), Fjord, near Bergen, Norway
Collection date: Oct 17, 1964
Depth: 120 m
Substrate: mud
Comments: 12 specimens in Norway. 'One specimen contained a large prey turbellarien. 7 adults, 5 with male organ and a mature egg, whereas two were in male phase only' [sample numbers 462-64 (E7)].

Trondheim Fjord, Trondheimfjord (harbor of Trondheim), Norway
Collection date: prior to 1975
Depth: 45-400 m
Substrate: soft bottom

Drobak (Dröbak, Dröback), Norway
Collection date: prior to 1975
Depth: 45-400 m
Substrate: soft bottom

Arendal, Norway
Collection date: prior to 1975
Depth: 45-400 m
Substrate: soft bottom

Swedish West Coast
Collection date: prior to 1975
Depth: 10-30 m

Split, Adriatic, Croatia
Collection date: prior to 1975
Depth: 5-14 m

West Greenland, Disko Bay (Qeqertarsuup Tunua, Qeqertarssup Tunua, Disko Bugt), South of Godhavn, Greenland
Collection date: 1931 or earlier
Depth: 200-300 m
Comments: Westgrönland (Diskobay, 200-300 m Tiefe).
  • Steinböck O. 1931. index card avail.
     . Ergebnisse einer von E. Reisinger & O. Steinbock mit hilfe des Rask-Örsted fonds durchgefuhrten Reise in Grönland 1926. 2. Nemertoderma bathycola nov. gen. nov. spec., eine eigenartige Turbellarie aus. Vidensk Medd Dan Naturhist Foren 90:47-84.
  • Dorjes J. 1968. index card avail.
     . Die Acoela (Turbellaria) der deutschen Nordseeküste und ein neues System der Ordnung. Z zool Syst Evolutionsforsch 6:56-452.
  • Steinböck O, Reisinger E. 1931. index card avail.
     . Ergebnisse einer von E. Reisinger und O Steinböck mit Hilfe des Rask-Örsted Fonds durchgeführten Reise in Grönland 1926. 1. Reisenbericht. Vidensk. Medd. Dansk. naturh. Foren 90, p. 13-43.
  • Sterrer W. 1998.  abstract/note. New and known Nemertodermatida (Playthelminthes-Acoelomorpha) -- a revision. Belgian J Zool 128: 55-92.
  • Dorjes J, Karling TG. 1975.   . Species of Turbellaria Acoela in the Swedish Museum of Natural History, with remarks on their anatomy, taxonomy and distribution. Zool Scr 4: 175-189.
  • Steinböck O. 1932. index card avail.
     . Die Turbellarien des arktischen Gebietes. In: Römer & Schaudinn. Fauna Arctica. Jena, 6:295-342.
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Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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Ecology

Habitat

shelf to bathyal, in sand
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Nemertoderma bathycola Steinbock O 1930 (citation)- Type     Definition: Steinbock O 1930 (citation) p 80.     History and synonyms:     Steinbock O 1930 (citation) p 47-80. Details confusion with Rhnchocoels.   Westblad E 1937 (citation)- More specimens- long description of histology, etc.- also   whether it is primitive or not- concludes it is not an acoel though many   characters are primitive.     Geographic distribution: Greenland, Diskobay, North Sea, Skagerrak, Mediterranean, Adriatic.     Specimens: Swedish Museum of Natural History, Dorjes J, Karling TG 1975 (citation)    Steinbock O 1932 (citation)- in check list p 297 and table p 335- only in Arctic he reports.  Bresslau E 1933 (citation)- p 263 fig 257- brain lies next to epithelium outside the outer layer of muscle   - length at least 0.26 mm x 0.1 mm. Colorless, from Diskobay, Greenland- dredged   at 250(-300) meters.    An der Lan H 1936 (citation)- mentions nervous system.  Meixner J 1938 (citation)- p 100, fig 87. "Nemertoderma sp = ?bathycola Steinbock (Nemertodermatidae)-   Long section reconstruction. A-(young) animal in female reproductive phase,   B-(old) animal in completely developed male organs. Body plan Acoela-like, but with a   gut system definitely marked off from parenchyma and with a lumen. Granular glands only   in ventral gut epithelium while the very thick dorsal epithelium takes care of digestion   and absorption [and surrounds] some reproductive products especially the egg cells. This   epithelium can be [?] out through the mouth by contraction of outer body muscles so as to   pick up small bits of nourishment. Outside epithelium very thick, syncytical, with   many often multicellular muscous glands and single celled serous glands, a frontal   organ with glands of a similar [?], nervous system at base of the epithelium.   "Orthogonal" net like with one pair of ganglia behind the statocyst which is suspended   by 5(6) pairs of dorsal, ventral, and lateral muscles surrounded by a thin web of   nerves and [?] joined to the ganglia by a pair of lateral nerves; gonads (with thin   parenchymal tunic) embeded in the dorsal gut epithelium (nutritive!), testes paired,   their large tubes opening out the [?]- ovary unpaired (?)(earlier paired?) egg zone in   B well developed. Sperm go out from the testes through many openings through the   parenchyma into the seminal vesicle lying here and [?] themselves with the [?] of   the granular gland, a ductus ejaculat - a ciliated tube to the outside with mucous glands   at the base - without a vagina and without bursa. Milky white A to 0.75 mm and   B to 0.52mm long, on loam or mud buttoms to 30 m (Scandinavia) or to 25 m deep (Greenland)."    Westblad E 1942 (citation)- Statocyst muscles in.   Westblad E 1948 (citation)- statocyst muscles in.  Hyman LH 1951 (citation) -vol 2, p 83 and illustration p 86- illustration of entire animal- long section to   show portion of nervous system next to epidermis and other organs. p 132 notes at 1st   dredged off Greenland - later found in numbers off Scandinavian coast.    Riedl RJ 1960 (citation)-  Ax 1961 (citation)- diagram of nervous system in. sagital section of.  Ax P 1963 (citation)- says has epithelial nervous system- also more than 1 statolith & other structures.  Hadzi J 1963 (citation)-p 197.  [Bush L- notes that her slides show this species collected in Buzzards Bay at Howie Sanders Station G,   Jan 6, 1966 (also once by dredging in Vinyard Sound).]    Sterrer W 1966 (citation)- notes description of this species by Steinbock.  Steinbock O 1966 (citation)- p 106, 154, on form westbladi p 154.  Dorjes J 1968 (citation)- p 92 notes this is type. Lists four forms of this species:   Groenlandform Steinbock 1930 (N. bathycola Steinbock 1930)   Nordseeform Westblad 1937, Riedl 1959 (N. wesbladi Steinbock 1938)   Skagerrakform Riedl 1959   Adriaform Riedl 1959     One forma has 3 statoliths. p 217-218 short discussion.    Beklemischev VN 1969 (citation)- vol II, p 35- illustration of epithelium. p 190 illustration of   pharynx and other systems. p 395 notes copulatory cirrus is simple inpocketing of   skin. p 398 illustration.    Apelt G 1969 (citation)- p 268 notes Westblad (1937) says protogyny here.  Dorjes J, Karling TG 1975 (citation)- North Atlantic. Swedish Museum of Natural History.  Hendelberg J 1977 (citation)- electron microscopy and light microscopy.  

 Lundin K 1997 (citation)- "ultrastructure of the epidermal ciliary rootlets and associated structures in  species of the Nemertodermatida and Acoela". Species used: Meara stichopi, Nemertoderma westbladi,  Nemertoderma cf. bathycola, Convolutriloba retrogemma, Childia groenlandica, Paraphanostoma submaculatum,  Haploposthia virdis.
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Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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