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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Cultivated as garden plant, Native of Tropical America"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Derivation of specific name

foliosa: leafy
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Through most of southern half of U.S., also in PR, VI, and Latin America.

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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Palakkad, Alappuzha, Kollam, Idukki, Kozhikkode, Thrissur

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Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Mysore Kerala: All districts
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Ala., Ariz., Ark., Fla., Ga., Kans., La., Miss., Mo., N.Mex., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America.
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Distribution: Cuba, West Indies, Puerto Rico, Flordia, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguaya, Rio de Janiero, West Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual, prostrate or ascending, somewhat fleshy herb. Stem and branches slender, terete, with 3-6 mm long internodes, glabrous. Leaves alternate, sessile, somewhat fleshy, linear to linear-lanceolate, 5-8 mm long, 1.5-3 mm broad, acute, entire; stipular hairs copious, 3-6 mm long, twisted. Inflorescence a terminal, sessile cluster of 2-6 flowers surrounded by long pale hairs and 8 leaved- involucre. Flowers pink, c. 10 mm across; bracts minute, elliptic-ovate, acute. Sepals free, c. 3.5 mm long, triangular-ovate, acute, glabrous. Petals 5, slightly united at the base, obovate, 5-6 mm long, c. 4 mm broad, obtuse, pink. Stamens c. 20, filaments filiform, c. 3 mm long, basally united and adnate to petals; anthers minute. Carpels 4, syncarpons; ovary ovoid; style deeply 4-fid; stigmas 4, elongated, c. 1.5 mm long. Capsule ovoid, 5-6 mm long, c. 4 mm in diam., circumscissile in the middle, enclosed by withered corolla and hairs, crustaceous, wall parallel-veined. Seeds numerous, reniform, dark brown to black, papillate.
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Description

Herbs annual or perennial, 5-20 cm. Stems not articulated, densely caespitose, diffuse, much branched; leaf axils densely pilose. Leaves alternate; petiole absent; leaf blade terete-linear or subulate-lanceolate, 10-20 × 1-4 mm, apex acute. Flowers more than ca. 2 cm in diam., surrounded by involucre of 6-9 bracts and dense wool. Sepals oblong, apex acute or acuminate. Petals 5, red-purple, broadly obovate, connate at base, apex obtuse or slightly retuse. Stamens 20-30; filaments red, free. Style short; stigma 3-6-lobed. Capsule glossy straw colored apically, cylindric-ovoid, ca. 3 × 2.5 mm. Seeds black, with very slight purplish iridescence when mature, 0.5-0.7 mm; testa cells interlocking, domed to conic-tuberculate. Fl. and fr. May-Aug.
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Description

Plants annual; roots fibrous to slightly fleshy. Stems prostrate, suberect to erect, succulent; trichomes conspicuous at nodes and in inflorescence; branches 3-25 cm. Leaf blades linear to oblong-lanceolate, terete to hemispheric, 5-20 × 1-3 mm, apex acute; involucrelike leaves 6-9. Flowers 5-12 mm diam.; petals dark pink to purple, obovate, 3-5(-7) × 1.5-3 mm; stamens 5-12(-37); stigmas 3-5(-6). Capsules ovoid, 1.5-4.3 mm diam. Seeds black or leaden, orbiculate (0.4-)0.5-0.6 mm diam.; surface cells loosely arranged, short-tuberculate and stellate to rounded-stellate; tubercles long or absent. 2n = 8, 16.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Perennial succulent herbs with fusiform tuberous roots; stem often reddish, erect or decumbent. Leaves 6-20 x 1-4 mm, oblong or linear, terete, apex obtuse; stipules hairy. Flowers terminal, solitary or 2-4, sessile, subtended by an involucre of 3-6 cauline leaves. Sepals 2-4 x 1-2.5 mm. Petals 4-6, bright yellow, 5-10 x 3-8 mm, obovate. Stamens 10-20 or more; filaments c. 3 mm long. Styles 3-5-armed. Capsules 2-3 mm across, globose. Seeds black, granulate."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Portulaca mundula I. M. Johnston
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Type Information

Isotype for Portulaca macbridei D. Legrand
Catalog Number: US 1540336
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. F. Macbride
Year Collected: 1923
Locality: Ambo, Huánuco, Peru, South America
  • Isotype: Legrand, C. D. 1952. Comun. Bot. Mus. Hist. Nat. Montevideo. 2 (22): 3.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: In gravelly or sandy soils on slopes and in arroyos (Correll and Johnston, 1970).

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General Habitat

"Moist deciduous forests, also in the plains"
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Habitat & Distribution

Dry open places near seashores. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan (including Xisha Qundao), Taiwan, S Yunnan [Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, America].
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Dry soils, beaches, disturbed habitats, roadsides and railroads on limestone, granitic, and sandstone outcrops; 0-2000m.
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Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 0.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Hypolimnas misippus (Common diadem)
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: July-September
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Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late spring-early fall, year-round in s Fla.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per. March-October.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Portulaca papulosa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Barcode data: Portulaca pilosa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Portulaca pilosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Portulaca papulosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Very widespread; not endangered.

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Wikipedia

Portulaca pilosa

[1][2]

Portulaca pilosa is a species of flowering plant in the purslane family, Portulacaceae, that is native to the Americas. Its range extends from the southern United States and the Caribbean as far south as Brazil.[3] It is a succulent with linear leaves and pink flowers.

Description[edit]

The name is possibly derived from pilose, which means to be covered with long soft hairs. The Portulaca pilosa is a highly variable species. It is seen that it exhibits morphological variability during development with the immature plants having a wider, longer and flatter leaves than its mature counterparts. The mature leaves are narrower, shorter and more hemispheric in cross section. Physical differences may also occur due to the variable habitat that this species can be found in. Plants that grow in an arid environment tend to the greatest density of hairs. Plants that grow in a moister environment tend to have less hairs. Plants with very dense hair under a certain condition will produce growth with fewer hairs under a moist condition, showing its variability of growth. Habit is also governed by its habitat. Plants growing in moist, warm environments tend to branch rather quickly into a spreading habit, with a secondary growth which is erect. Plants in dry and cool environment do the opposite in that they grow erect first and then branch more slowly. This type has a more compact habit. Specimens from Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and New Mexico exhibit all morphologic conditions. Those from Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma usually tend to occur in shallow, sandy soils, often on rocky outcrops, and are often highly branched, compact, short, and not very pilose (hairy).

Location[edit]

Portulaca pilosa is a pantropical species [4] native to Asia.[5] In the Americas P. pilosa can be found in Mexico, West indies, Central America, and as far south in South America as Brazil. And in the United States, they are typically concentrated in the southern parts such as Arkansas, Texas, New Mexico, Florida, Mississippi among other states. P. pilosa is a documented invasive species throughout the Hawaiian Islands, the Galapagos Islands, New Caledonia, and Christmas Island (PIER.org 2012).[5] In Hawaii, P. pilosa is officially documented from the coastline to dry lava flows over 2000 feet in elevation [6] yet can be found up to nearly 6000 feet in the Pohakuloa Saddle region.[7]

Characteristics[edit]

The Plants are annual. The flowering can be from late spring to early fall. They are year-round in south Florida. It is somewhat unique in that it can grow under a range of different environments. Such environments include dry soils, beaches, and disturbed habitats. They can also grow on roadsides and railroads, on limestone, granitic, and sandstone outcrops.

Structures[edit]

The roots are fibrous to semi-fleshy. The trichomes are rather obvious at the nodes and are in inflorescence. The branch size range from 3-25 centimeters. The leaf blades are linear to oblong-lanceolate, which is intermediate of the two. They can also be terete to hemispheric, with a range of size (5-20 x 1–3 mm). The plant has an acute apex with involcure-like bract of about six to nine. Flowers range from .5 to 1.2 centimeters in diameter. The color of the petals can range from darkish pink to purple. The flower shape is obovate with 3-5 x 1.5-3 millimeters in size. The stamens in size of 5-12 millimeters but can reach up to 37 millimeters. The stigmas can be of the size of between 3-6 millimeters. The capsules are oval with a 1.5 to 4.3 millimeters in diameter. The seeds are black or leaden with a nearly circular shape. The size range from .4 to .6 millimeters in diameter. The surface cells are loosely arranged. The number of chromosomes is 16 which is 2n = 8. [8]

Uses[edit]

It has been said that the species of Portulaca pilosa in Brazil has been used as a traditional remedy to cause diuresis, antipyresis and analgesia. Studies have shown that its extracts have renal effects. It has also been seen that in rats, such extracts cause an increase in potassium excretion without a concomitant change in water diuresis or sodium excretion.[9] Studies reveal that this species also inhibits tyrosinase in mushrooms in vitro.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baurin, N; Arnoult, Scior, Bernard (October 2002). "Preliminary screening of some tropical plants for anti-tyrosinase activity". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 82 (2-3): 155–158. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(02)00174-5. 
  2. ^ Johnston, M. "Flora of North Amrica". Species Plantarum 1: 445. 1753. (1 May 1753). Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Portulaca pilosa L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-03-21. Retrieved 2010-06-08. 
  4. ^ Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer S H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai`i, revised edition with supplement by Wagner WL, Herbst DR (Bishop Museum Special Publication 97). Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii Press; 1919 p. in 2 volumes.
  5. ^ a b [PIER] Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Project. 2005. Portulaca pilosa L. Portulacaceae [Internet]; cited on 2012 Aug 12; Available from http://www.hear.org/pier/species/portulaca_pilosa.htm
  6. ^ Herbarium Pacificum. 2008. Online database; cited on 2012 August 12; Available from:http://www.bishopmuseum.org/research/natsci/botany/botdbhome.html
  7. ^ [US Army] United States Department of the Army. 2002. Biological assessment for programmatic section 7(a)(2) consultation on routine military training and related activities at Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA), island of Hawaii. Honolulu (HI): US Army Garrison, Hawaii. 169 p.
  8. ^ Johnston, m. "Flora of North America". 
  9. ^ Rocha, M.J.A.; Fulgencio, Rabetti, Nicolau, Poli, Siomoes, Ribeiro, Valle (22 July 1994). "Effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Portulacapilosa and Achyrocline satureioides on urinary sodium and potassium excretion". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 43 (3). doi:10.1016/0378-8741(94)90040-X. Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
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Notes

Comments

This name has been very widely misapplied, and much material so named belongs elsewhere. Portulaca pilosa was described from South American material but it is now a widespread weed of warm regions. Geesink (Blumea 17: 294. 1969) included virtually all species of Portulaca with linear to elliptic leaves within P. pilosa, dividing these among eight subspecies. We believe that Geesink’s treatment was too inclusive and that the complex as defined by him includes a number of distinct species in our area, such as P. insularis and P. psammotropha. The exact identity of the Chinese material needs further investigation, particularly with respect to living populations.

The plants are used for medicinal purposes.

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Comments

Portulaca pilosa is a highly variable species. It exhibits morphologic variability during development, with immature plants having wider (to 4 mm), longer, and flatter leaves than mature specimens. Mature leaves are narrower, shorter, and hemispheric or terete in cross section. The Linnaean drawing of the type specimen may be an immature plant. Morphologic variability also occurs in relation to habitat differences over the large geographic range of this species. Plants growing in dry habitats have the greatest density of hairs; plants growing in moist habitats are less pilose. Plants with very dense hairs on old growth will, under more moist conditions, produce new growth with fewer hairs. Growth habit is also affected by habitat. Plants growing in warm, moist environments tend to branch quickly into a spreading habit, with erect growth following secondarily. Plants in cool, dry habitats grow erect first, then branch more slowly; the plant then has a compact habit. Specimens from Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, and Texas exhibit all morphologic conditions. Those from Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma usually occur in shallow, sandy soils, often on rocky outcrops, and are often highly branched, compact, short, and not very pilose.
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Comments

Native of tropical and subtropical America. It is rare and probably a casual introduction in our area.

The leaves are intensely bitter to taste and have been used as a diuretic, stomachic and emmenagogue.

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