The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2007 - 2011. The International Plant Names Index (IPNI)
  • 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
  • AFPD. 2008. African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique.
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • F.N., Hepper., & I. Friis.   (1994).  The Plants of Pehr Forsskal's "Flora Ageyptiaco-Arabica". Kew: Kew Publishing..  
  • Fryxell, P. A. 118. Malvaceae. Fl. Ecuador. 44: 1–141.
  • Gibbs Russell, G. E., W. G. M. Welman, E. Retief, K. L. Immelman, G. Germishuizen, B. J. Pienaar, M. Van Wyk & A. Nicholas. 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 2(1–2): 1–152(pt. 1), 1–270(pt. 2).
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & C. Ulloa Ulloa. 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador–A checklist. AAU Rep. 34: 1–443.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Ecuador, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Miss. Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • L., Boulos.   (Submitted).  Flora of Egypt. Cairo: Al Hadara Publishing..  
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Munz, P. A. 1974. Fl. S. Calif. 1–1086. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Species Plantarum 2: 691. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • V., Täckholm.   (1974).  Students’ Flora of Egypt, 2nd Ed. Cairo: Cairo University Press..  
  • V., Täckholm., & M. Drar.   (Submitted).  Flora of Egypt. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science. Cairo: Cairo University Press..  


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