- Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=1
- Ávila, S.P.; Cardigos, F.; Santos, R.S. (2004). D. João de Castro Bank, a shallow water hydrothermal-vent in the Azores: checklist of marine Molluscs. Arquipélago (Ciénc. Biol. Mar./Life Mar. Sci.) 21A: 75-80 http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=1565
- Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180-213 http://www.marinespecies.org/mollusca/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=1364
- MEDIN (2011). UK checklist of marine species derived from the applications Marine Recorder and UNICORN, version 1.0. http://www.marinespecies.org/asteroidea/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=149081
- Borges, P.A.V., Costa, A., Cunha, R., Gabriel, R., Gonçalves, V., Martins, A.F., Melo, I., Parente, M., Raposeiro, P., Rodrigues, P., Santos, R.S., Silva, L., Vieira, P. & Vieira, V. (Eds.) (2010). A list of the terrestrial and marine biota from the Azores. Princípia, Oeiras, 432 pp. http://www.marinespecies.org/ascidiacea/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=149079
- Koukouras, Athanasios. (2010). Check-list of marine species from Greece. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Assembled in the framework of the EU FP7 PESI project. http://www.marinespecies.org/asteroidea/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=142068
Depth range (m): 0 - 70
Depth range (m): 0 - 70
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Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Limaria hians
There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank. Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species. See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen. Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Limaria hians
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
The bivalves make sticky threads which bind stones and pieces of shell debris into a felt-lined nest. Holes in the reef allow fresh seawater to flow through, preventing stagnation. The live animals cannot be seen unless the mat-like nest is torn open.
The distribution of this species is primarily in the west coast of Scotland from the sublittoral (below low tide), down to 100m, although there are patchy records of the species being found in more southerly regions of the United Kingdom. There are a number of well-known colonies on the sea bed in Loch Carron, below Strome Castle. In 2012 a bed of 100 million flame shells covering an area of 75 hectares was found during a survey of Loch Alsh undertaken by Heriot-Watt University on behalf of Marine Scotland. Richard Lochhead, Cabinet Secretary for Rural Affairs and the Environment said: "The flame shell must be considered among the most remarkable species in our waters, with a dazzling array of orange tentacles. Many would place such an exotic species in far-flung tropical reefs - not realising they dwell under the waves just off the coast of Skye. This important discovery may be the largest grouping of flame shells anywhere in the world." 
- "Marine Scotland survey uncovers 'huge' flame shell bed". BBC News Online. 2012-12-26. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-20838775. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
Hall-Spencer JM & Moore PG (2000) Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea): a neglected reef-forming keystone species. Aquatic Conservation 10, 267-277.