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Overview

Comprehensive Description

11. Chenopodium vulvaria L. Figs 2K, 9B

Linnaeus, Sp. pi.: 220 (1753).

- Type: Linnaean Herbarium 313.18 (LINN) lectotype, sei. by Jafri & Rateeb, FI. Libya 58: 15 (1978).

D Stinkende Gåsefod . F haisusavikka. N sildemelde.

S stinkmålla .

Literature. Nilsson & Gustafsson 1982.

Therophyte (summer-annual). (5-)10-30(-40) cm, conspicuously grey-farinose, not tinged with red, stinking (smell sometimes perceptible even in several decades old herbarium specimens if moistened and rubbed). Stem subterete, hard, erect to procumbent, usually richly branched; lower branches subopposite, prostrate to ascending, usually longer than the stem, to 50 cm. Leaves with petiole c. 2/3 as long as the blade; blade ovate to broadly trullate or broadly ovate (especially larger leaves with a distinct angle on each margin at the widest point), 0.5-4(-5) cm, sometimes wider than long; base cuneate to truncate; apex obtuse or sometimes acute; margin entire. Bracts similar to the leaves but smaller and narrower.

Inflorescences terminal and axillary, small, composed of ebracteate, lax, short panicles. Flowers bisexual or lateral ones often female. Tepals 5, connate to 1/2 to c. 2/3, very densely farinose, slightly keeled; margin ± herbaceous; apex obtuse. Stamens 5 (if present). Stigmas 2, 0.4-0.6 mm. Nut falling with the perianth; pericarp not adherent to the seed. Seed horizontal, orbicular in outline, 1-1.2 mm; edge rounded; seed-coat brownish black, glossy, almost smooth except for faint radial striae. - Late summer to autumn.

2n=18 (S Sk). - [2n=18].

Distribution. Established and possibly archaeophytic at least in S Sk, but mainly casual, brought in with e.g. grain, ballast, ore and cork. - D probably not established; ØJy Randers 1966, �rhus 1895, 1963, FyL Odense 1960, Sjæ Pedersborg (with cork from Morocco, several records 1955-66), Hagesholm 1967-68, København area, latest 1989 (regular 1843-1893), LFM Nykøbing 1927, 1956, Brn several localities

1863-90 (with ballast). N casual in the south, before 1910 in ballast places in 0/Fredrikstad 1882,1891, Ak Oslo several records 1854-1905, Vf Larvik 1892, Te Bamble 1857, AA Arendal 1906, VA Mandal 1826, 1881-82, MR Kristiansund 1865, 1868; later only Ak Oslo 1925 (grain mill) and Ho Kvam 1954 (on chromium ore from Turkey). S established at least in Sk, particularly in towns at the western and southern coasts (but in the 1990's only present in Falsterbo and Skanör ) and on seashores in the northwest (Hov and Västra Karup at least 1948-50), and Bl (established town weed in Karlshamn 1859-91); elsewhere usually ephemeral, but locally persistent in ÖgMjölby 1942-61 (railway station) and Upl Uppsala 1818- 1952; most recently Upl Stockholm 1984 (port); north of Sk and Bl mainly with ballast, in Vg Västra Tunhem 1958 and Dir Stora Tuna 1931-35 with manganese ore. F old records (before 1925, mainly with ballast) from A Mariehamn, V Turku, Uusikaupunki, U Porvoo, EP Vaasa, KP Kokkola, OP Oulu; later only V Turku 1952 (probably with oats from Algeria) and U Helsinki 1940 (with cork from Morocco).

Europe (but very rare in the northwest, north and east), N Africa, SW and S Central Asia.

Habitat. In S Sk partly towns (especially on cobbled streets), partly seashores (mainly on drift); elsewhere casual on waste ground at factories, ports, mills and tips.

Variation. Specimens from ballast areas, and from localities with established occurrence, are usually small and procumbent, have small leaf-blades which are rounded at their widest point, and flower and set seed regularly. Possibly these features were genetically controlled adaptations to trampled environments. Specimens from mills and tips, especially in the north, are often tall, have larger and more distinctly angular leaf-blades, and they flower later.

Similar taxa. Chenopodium vulvaria is similar to C. karoi , C. mucronatum and C. sosnowskyi (rare casuals).

  • Jonsell, B., Karlsson (2005): Chenopodiaceae - Fumariaceae (Chenopodium). Flora Nordica 2, 4-31: 18-18, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/FlNordica_chenop/FlNordica_chenop.pdf
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Chenopodium mucronatum Thunb. 1794 . -

Similar to C. vulvaria (11) but green (sparsely farinose only in young parts), with erect stem and ascending branches; leaf-blades almost as wide as long, triangular to deltate or broadly ovate, 3-lobed, ± entire, apex obtuse to acute; inflorescences usually bracteate, axillary and terminal, panicle-like. - A variable species, here understood collectively.

S Sk Lackalänga 1934, 1937 (with wool). - S Africa.

  • Jonsell, B., Karlsson (2005): Chenopodiaceae - Fumariaceae (Chenopodium). Flora Nordica 2, 4-31: 30-30, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/FlNordica_chenop/FlNordica_chenop.pdf
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annuum incano-cinerascens nauseosograveolens, caulibus procumbenti-adscendentibus diffuse ramosis, foliis alternis petiolatis rhombeo-ovatis integerrimis obtusis v. acutis, florum glomerulis axillaribus et terminalibus nunc spicatim nunc dense cymoso-racemiforme dispositis aphyllis, calycis laciniis ecarinatis conniventibusj semine laevigato nitido margine acutiusculo.

Ch. Vulvaria Moquin-Tand .

Moquin-Tand . Chenop. p. 23 . Dec.Prodr.XIII , 2 , p. 64 . Fl. dan. t. 1152 . SturmDeutschl. Flor. p. 75 . S.G. Geml.It.IV , p. 13 , Stephan Fl. mosq. No. 166.Pall. Ind. Taur.GeorgiBeschr. d. Russ. R. III , 4 . p. 817 . M. a Bieb.Fl. t. c.I , p. 180 . C . Koch in Linnaea XXII, p. 182 .

Moquin-Tand . Chenop. p. 23 . Dec.Prodr.XIII , 2 , p. 64 . Fl. dan. t. 1152 . SturmDeutschl. Flor. p. 75 . S.G. Geml.It.IV , p. 13 , Stephan Fl. mosq. No. 166.Pall. Ind. Taur.GeorgiBeschr. d. Russ. R. III , 4 . p. 817 . M. a Bieb.Fl. t. c.I , p. 180 . C . Koch in Linnaea XXII, p. 182 .

Ch. olidum Curt.F. l. londin. Fasc. V, t. 20.Engl. Bol. t. 1034.Jundz. Fl. lilhuan. p. 78.Mart. Fl. mosq. p. 48. C. A. Meyer Ind. cauc p. 161.EicHw. Ski-sfse p. 133.Hohenack. Enum. Elisabethpol. p. 226.Wkinm. Fl. petropol. p. 28.Hohenack. Enum. Taliisch. p. 524.

F. l. londin. Fasc. V, t. 20.Engl. Bol. t. 1034.Jundz. Fl. lilhuan. p. 78.Mart. Fl. mosq. p. 48. C. A. Meyer Ind. cauc p. 161.EicHw. Ski-sfse p. 133.Hohenack. Enum. Elisabethpol. p. 226.Wkinm. Fl. petropol. p. 28.Hohenack. Enum. Taliisch. p. 524.

Ch. foetidum .

Gilib. Exerc. phytol. II, p. 438.Schult. Syst. Veget. VI,.262.Vulvaria. Erdt. Virid. warsaw. p. 19.

Gilib. Exerc. phytol. II, p. 438.Schult. Syst. Veget. VI,.262.Vulvaria. Erdt. Virid. warsaw. p. 19.

Hab. in Rossia media [ Petropoli ( Weinm. ) , Lithuania ( Gilib. , Jundz. , Eichw. ) , Warsawia ( Erndt. ) , Mosqua ( Stephan , Mart. )] et australi [des. cunian. (S. G. Gmel.)] inque Tauria ( Pall. , M. a Bieb. ) et provinciis caucasicis ( M. a Bieb. > [pr. Konstantinogorsk ( C. A. Meyer ) , in peninsula Apscheron ( C. Koch ) , provine. Talusch , alt. 416—666 hexap. ( Hohenack .)] . ©.

  • Karl Friedrich von Ledebour (1844): Chenopodium vulvaria. In: Flora Rossica; sive, Enumeratio plantarum in totius Imperii Rossici provinciis Europaeis, Asiaticis et Americanis hucusque observatarum, auctore Carolo Friderico a Ledebour. Stuttgart: Sumptibus Librariae E. Schweizerbart, 695-696: 695-696, URL:http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/6120493
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10. C. olidum . Stinking Goosefoot.

Sm.Eng. Fl.ii . 14 ; Eng. Bot , 1034 ; Curt.Fasc.v . t. 20 ; Hook.Fl. Scot.83 ; Withii . 370 ; Hudson , 107 ; Woodv. t. 145 .

On rubbish at Friar's Goose, near Gateshead, and by road sides near Westoe, D.

  • Nathaniel John Winch (1838): Flora of Northumberland and Durham. In: Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle: Emerson Charnley, and Longman & Co., 16-17: 16-17, URL:http://un.availab.le
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26. Chenopodium Vulvaria L.Sp. Pl220 . 1753 .

Atriplex Vulvaria Crantz , Inst.1 : 207 . 1766 .

Chenopodium foetidum Lam.Fl. Fr . 3 : 244 . 1778 .

Chenopodium olidum Curt.Fl. Lond.5 ; pl. 20 . 1788 .

Chenopodium album Kuntze , Taschen-Fl. Leipz.218 . 1867 .

Vulvaria vulgaris Bubani , Fl. Pyren.1 : 175 . 1897 .

Ill-scented annual, much branched from the base and often throughout, the branches ascending, 1.5-4 dm. long, slender or stout, copiously farinose; petioles half as long as the blades or longer, often equaling them; leaf-blades rhombic-ovate to ovate-orbicular, 1-3.5 cm . long and as wide, rounded to acutish at the apex, mostly rounded at the base, entire, thick, copiously farinose beneath, often glabrate on the upper surface; flowers in small glomerules, these in slender or stout, usually dense, paniculate spikes, the inflorescence little branched, usually leafy; calyx densely farinose, the lobes obtuse, rounded on the back, completely enclosing the fruit; pericarp adherent; seed horizontal, depressed-globose, dull, slightly puncticulate, black, 1 mm . broad, the margin rounded.

Type locality: Europe.

Distribution: Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa; sparsely adventive from Quebec and Ontario to Maryland and Wisconsin, and in Florida.

Illustrations: Curt.Fl. Lond.5 : pl. 20 ; Engl. Bot. pl. 1034 ; Fl. Dan. pl. 1152 ; Dodoens , Pempt.605 ; Blackw.Herb. pl.100 ; Woodv.Med. Bot. pl. 145 ; Sturm , Deuts. Fl.75 : pl . 14 ; Britt. & Brown , lll, Fl. ed. 2.f. 1681 ; Reichenb.Ic. Fl. Germ.24 : pi. 237 ; Moss , Cambr. Brit. Fl. pl. 157 ; Hegi , Ill. Fl. pl.95 , f. 3 ; Pratt , Fl. PI. Great Brit.pl . 175 , f. 3 ; Benth.Ill. Handb. f. 835 ; Fiori & Paol.Ic. Fl. Ital. f. 1009 .

  • Paul Carpenter Standley (1916): Chenopodiaceae. In: North American Flora. New York: New York Botanical Garden, 20: 20-20, URL:http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/749735
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11. C vulvaria L. , Spec. Plant.: 220 (1753) .

Icon.: HEGI, Ill. Fl. Mitteleur. ed. 2, 3(2): tab. 96, fig. 3 (1960). SAVULESCU, Fl. R.P.R. 1;Pl. 83, fig. 1 (1952). - Tab. 16 fig. 1; 26 fig. 5.

Type: "Habitat in Europae cultis oleraceis”, LINN313/18 !; lectotype selected by JAFRI & RATEEB, Fl. Libya 58: 15 (1978).

Low, grey-farinose annual, smelling of decaying fish, especially when rubbed between finger and thumb; main stem to 30 cm , erect to procumbent, without red colour, usually divaricately much-branched, lowermost internodes short and lower branches often subopposite, to 70 cm long, ascending to prostrate. Leaf lamina grey-farinose especially beneath, greener above, rarely reddish, longer than or equal to petiole, 0,5— 3 cm long, broadly trullate or broadly ovate to ovate, margins entire, in large leaves sometimes with a fairly acute angle on each margin at broadest point, base truncate to short attenuate, apex obtuse to acute. Inflorescence small, terminal and axillary, composed of loose, short thyrses, glomerules small. Flowers perfect or lateral ones often female. Perianth segments 5, with rounded back. Stamens 5 or 0. Stigmas 2, short. Fruits falling with perianth. Pericarp somewhat adherent. Seeds horizontal, brownish black, 0,9-1,2 mm in diameter, round in outline, margin obtuse, roundish; testa almost smooth except for weak radial striae.

Hab.: Gardens, yards, roadsides, fields, steppes, open forests; 530— 2800 m . — Fl. V—IX, fr. V-X.

Talish : ” Revarut ”, 1615 m , ALEXEENKO !

Persia : N: Gorg. : Gorgan , SHAR . 506 !, 586 ! 6 km N At Temar on road to Hottan , HEWER3746 ! Moh. Reza Shah Prot. Reg. : Ad cascades E Tang-e Gol , substr. calc., 750 m , RECH . 5266 ! Tang-e Gol , 540 m , UOTILA19034 ! Maz. : 48 km of Shahi , 1220 m , FURSE2933 ! 60 km NNW Tehran 5 km N of tunnel , 2400 m , SODER120 ! 5 km from Veresk to Firuzkuli , 1400-1450 m , MATIN & TERME 41709-E ! Gilan : Gilan , LINDS . 1090 ! - W: Azerb. : Tabriz , GILL.-SM.1313 p.p.! Slopes above Goja Bel Pass 20 km W Ahar , JARDINE603 ! Kuhha-ye Sabalan, in decl. borealibus "Radar Road" , 2650 m , LAMOND4732 ! 8: TBRME in RBCH. 44112 ! Shotur-su , 1600 m , TERMB30350-E ! Dasht-e Moghan : 14 km SE Alirezaabad-e Jadid , 50-90 m , LAMOND3169 ! Khamseh : Kuli-i Qeydar , 2200-2650 m, TERME & MOUSSAVI40087 -E! Esf. : Esfahan , HAUSSKN .! 30 km S Esfahan versus Shahreza , SAHEBI2017 ! Lur. : Dow Rud , 1520 m , KOELZ15704 ! - S: Fars.: Shiraz , STAPF812 ! Eqlid , SHARAFBI-I40286-E ! Mian Jangal , SOJAK5165 ! Kerm. : Kuh-e Jupar , 2100 m , BORNM . 4159! Kuh-e jebal Barez near Deh Bakri , 1700-2700 m , SOIAK4115 ! Kerman , 1700 m , RBCH . 2959 ! - E: Khor. : 35 km E Shirvan , 1100 m , UOTILA19076 ! In montibus inter Bojnurd et Tappeh-ye Moraveh , RECH . 1932 ! Helali inter Gonabad et Behestan , 1250 m , RECH . 51480 ! In collibus ad Torbat-e Heydariyeh , 1300 m , RECH . 4332 ! Tayyebat , 840 m , UOTILA16275 !, 18952 ! Sarbislieh , MANUCH . 30126-E ! -C: Tehr. : Mahmudiyeh15 km N Tehran , 1250 m , AELLEN233 !, 234 ! Hableh Rud Valley near Sinin Dasht , 1150 m , AELLEN & MANUCH . 232 ! Qazv.: Karaj , 1330 m , ABLLEN231 !, GAUBA1127 !, 2097 ! Kamalabad near Karaj , MAZAHBRI 40287-El , RBC ! -1.! Damgh .- Semn. : Sarlash S Kuh-i Nizva , 2350 m , AELLEN & BBHB . 240! 45-52 km from Shahmirzad to Fulad Mahalleh , 2200- 2300 m , RENZ & IRANSHAHR16787 ! Shahr .- Bust. : Turan Prot. Reg. : Baghestan , 1250 m , BRECKLE & BHADRESA5148 ! Qaleh Bala , 1120 m , RECH . 50382 ! in decl. australibus M. Shahvar supra Nokarman , RECH . 7547 ! Khush Yailaq , Gardaneh-ye Olang , 1950-2000 m , TERME & MOUSSAVI39358 !

Turcomania : Ashkhabad , SINT . 641 !

Pakistan : Quetta : Sariab Road near Quetta , GHAFOOR & RIZWAN1010 ! Quetta , S.I. ALI1237 !, STEW . 27990 !, PAUKASH16462 ! Quetta , Chaman Phatak , GHAFOOR1402 ! Chiltan at. Park near Kooli Hazzargangi , RIZWAN1569 !

Distr. gen.: The Mediterranean area, C and E Europe, SW and C Asia; introduced in S Africa, N America and Australia.

Very variable in leaf size; the nasty smell of trimethylamine persists even in several decades old herbarium material by slightly moistening the plant before rubbing between finger and thumb.

  • I. C. Hedge, H. Akhani, H. Fritag, G. Kothe-Heinrich, D. Podlech, S. Rilke, P. Uotila (1997): Chenopodium vulvaria. In: Flora Iranica. Graz, Austria: Academische Druck u. Verlagsanstalt, 42-43: 42-43, ISBN:3-201-00728-5, URL:http://un.availab.le
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Chenopodium vulvaria L. 1753

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: 23 ; recordedBy: G.Lazkov ; Taxon: family: Amaranthaceae; genus: Chenopodium; specificEpithet: vulvaria; taxonRank: species; scientificNameAuthorship: L.; Location: continent: Asia; country: Kyrgyzstan ; stateProvince: Chüy Region; locality: E of Kara-Balta Town, factory area (under construction) ; decimalLatitude: 42.798333 ; decimalLongitude: 73.888611 ; Identification: identifiedBy: G.A.Lazkov; dateIdentified: 22/06/2013; Event: eventDate: 22/06/2013 ; year: 2013; month: 6; day: 22; habitat: ruderal places; eventRemarks: alien plant; Record Level: collectionID: 88420; institutionCode: FRU ; basisOfRecord: specimen

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: 24 ; recordedBy: G.Lazkov ; Taxon: family: Amaranthaceae; genus: Chenopodium; specificEpithet: vulvaria; taxonRank: species; scientificNameAuthorship: L.; Location: continent: Asia; country: Kyrgyzstan ; stateProvince: Osh Region; locality: Alay Range: Nookat, slopes ; verbatimElevation: 2000; decimalLatitude: 40.235 ; decimalLongitude: 72.558 ; Identification: identifiedBy: G.A.Lazkov; Event: eventRemarks: alien plant; Record Level: basisOfRecord: observation

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: 25 ; recordedBy: I.Gubanov ; Taxon: family: Amaranthaceae; genus: Chenopodium; specificEpithet: vulvaria; taxonRank: species; scientificNameAuthorship: L.; Location: continent: Asia; country: Kyrgyzstan ; stateProvince: Chüy Region; locality: Kara-Balta ravine ; decimalLatitude: 42.798333 ; decimalLongitude: 73.888611 ; Identification: identifiedBy: I.A.Gubanov; dateIdentified: 08/14/1961; Event: eventDate: 08/14/1961 ; year: 1961; month: 8; day: 14; eventRemarks: alien plant; Record Level: collectionID: 15550; institutionCode: MW ; basisOfRecord: specimen

Native distribution and occurrence in Central Asia

Pratov 1972 uncritically assumed Chenopodium vulvaria to occur throughout Central Asia, probably as native to the whole area because he included no mention on its status. However, Mosyakin 1996 analysed its distribution and concluded that this species is native to the Mediterranean and South-West Asia, being alien elsewhere. Chenopodium vulvaria is certainly native to the Flora Iranica area ( Uotila 1997 ; Uotila, pers. comm.) but is considered exclusively ruderal and synanthropic in Tajikistan ( Sidorenko et al. 1968 ) and Uzbekistan ( Botschantzev 1953 ). Its distribution in eastern Kazakhstan ( Goloskokov 1960 ) and southern Siberia ( Lomonosova 1992 ) is limited, fragmented, and also connected with human activities.

Occurrence in Kyrgyzstan

Nikitina 1955 was first to report this rare synanthropic species as ruderal in one place in Alay Range. Later she ( Nikitina 1967 ) dismissed the record as erroneous. Indeed, no relevant specimens have been uncovered in the collections of FRU which are the basis of Nikitina’s treatments.

The first confirmed record of this species in Kyrgyzstan, documented by a specimen, was made in 1961 in the ravine of Kara-Balta river ( Gubanov 1970 ), presumably close to its entrance, on the N side of Kyrgyz Range. This ravine is facing to Kara-Balta Town situated in the Chüy Depression; the southern part of the town (close to the ravine) is a vast industrial area since the Soviet times, including a large ore grinding factory which used imported ores.

This territory was revisited in 2013 in order to explore the area of the oil refinery factory (then under construction) east of Kara-Balta Town. The construction activities brought a number of alien plants, and the presence of Chenopodium vulvaria was confirmed in the area. No direct evidence of persistence may be inferred from its presence yet, because multiple independent introductions may have taken place.

The second locality of Chenopodium vulvaria was observed by Lazkov in the vicinity of Nookat village, Alay Range, without further information on the invasion status.

We consider this species to be alien to the country because of its weedy nature, anthropogenous characters of its habitats, and the paucity of its records (Fig. 8) which all are very recent.

Invasion status in Kyrgyzstan

Not documented; probably locally established (the status is inferred from the persistence of the species in the other countries of Central Asia). The observed populations are sparse and do not pose any threat to the native flora.

  • Lazkov, Georgy, Sennikov, Alexander (2014): New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1018: 1018-1018, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1018
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Sinai.

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Global Distribution

North Africa, Europe, Asia, Introduced into north America and Australia.

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introduced; Calif., Del., Fla., Ind., Md., Mich., Mo, N.Y., Pa.
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Distribution: The Mediterranean area, C and E Europe, SW and southern C Asia; introduced in S Africa, N America and Australia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Low, strongly grey-farinose annual, bad-smelling (like decaying fish), especially when rubbed between finger and thumb; main stem to 30 cm, erect to procumbent, without red colour, usually much branched especially basally, lowermost internodes short and lower branches often subopposite, to 70 cm long, ascending to prostrate. Leaf blade grey-farinose especially beneath, greener above, longer than or equal to petiole, 0.5-3 cm long, broadly trullate or broadly ovate to ovate, margin entire, in large leaves sometimes with a fairly acute angle on each margin at broadest part, base truncate to short attenuate, apex obtuse to acute. Inflorescence small, terminal and axillary, composed of loose, short panicles; glomerules small. Flowers perfect, or lateral ones often female. Perianth segments 5, connate to the middle or more, with rounded back. Stamens 5 or 0. Stigmas 2, short. Fruits falling with perianth. Pericarp ± adherent. Seeds horizontal, brownish-black, 0.9-1.2 mm in diameter, round in outline; testa almost smooth except for weak radial striae.
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Description

Stems erect or ascending, branching from base, to 4 dm, white-mealy. Leaves strongly malodorous; petiole 0.8-0.9 cm; blade ovate or rhombic, 0.8-1.6 × 0.6-1.5 mm, base rounded to cuneate, margins entire, apex acute, densely mealy abaxially, glabrescent adaxially. Inflorescences small glomerules in terminal panicles and axillary spikes; glomerules subglobose, 0.4 mm; bracts absent. Flowers: perianth segments 5, connate into 0.5 mm tube; lobes deltate, 0.5-0.7 × 0.6-0.7 mm, apex acuminate, rounded abaxially, farinose, covering fruit at maturity; stamens 5; stigmas 2, 0.2 mm. Achenes depressed-ovoid; pericarp adherent, smooth. Seeds lenticular, oval, 0.9-1.2 mm diam.; seed coat black, smooth. 2n = 18.
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Ecology

Habitat

Weeds of cultivation and waste ground.

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Disturbed, weedy areas; 100-800m.
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Gardens, fields, waste ground. 1500 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Fruiting fall.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. & Fr. Per.: April -- July (-- October).
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chenopodium vulvaria

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chenopodium vulvaria

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Chenopodium vulvaria

Stinking goosefoot (Chenopodium vulvaria), or notchweed, is a foul-smelling plant or weed. The plant is a member of the genus Chenopodium, the goosefoots.

Distribution[edit]

Its native distribution is practically pan-European and extends eastward to Pakistan. However, it has also naturalised in Australia, California and parts of South America.

The world distribution

Etymology[edit]

The specific epithet comes from the Latin term vulva ("external female genitalia"), in reference to the characteristic odour of the crushed leaves [1] which resembles dry fish.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Botanical Latin" William T. Stearn
  2. ^ "Flora silvestre y ornamental del Campus de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide" M. Luceño & al. (2005)
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Notes

Comments

The nasty smell of trimethylamine persists on herbarium material even several decades after by slightly moistening the plant and rubbing between finger and thumb. In addition to the smell, the leaf shape and the shape of inflorescence differentiate C. vulvaria from C. karoi and C. pamiricum.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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