Overview

Comprehensive Description

11. C. acutifolium . Sharp Entire-leaved Goosefoot.

Sm.Eng. Fl.ii . 15 ; Eng. Bot.1481 ; C. polyspermum . Curt.Fasc.ii . t. 17 ; Northumberland and Durham Guide , i . 25 ; With.ii . 371 .

On Sunderland ballast-hills, D.- W. Weighell's Herb.

  • Nathaniel John Winch (1838): Flora of Northumberland and Durham. In: Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle: Emerson Charnley, and Longman & Co., 16-17: 16-17, URL:http://un.availab.le
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8. Chenopodium polyspermum L .., Figs 2H, 7

Linnaeus, Sp. pi.: 220 (1753).

- Type: Linnaean Herbarium 313.19 (LINN) lectotype, sei. by Larsen, Fl. Cambodge, Laos, Vietnam 24: 95 (1989).

D MangefrøetGåsefod . F hentosavikka. N frømelde .

S fiskmålla .

Therophyte (summer-annual). (2-)10-80(-100) cm, glabrous or very slightly farinose on young parts. Stem ± angular, green to red, hard, erect or sometimes procumbent, sparsely branched; lower branches (sub-) opposite, often long; secondary branches few. Leaves often tinged with brown or red; blades thin, glabrous or sparsely farinose below when young; margin entire. Lower leaves with 1-2.5 cm long petiole; blade broadly ovate to ovate, 1-6(-9) cm; apex apiculate or acute to obtuse or rarely emarginate. Middle leaves with narrower, more elliptic and more obtuse blade. Bracts elliptic, lanceolate or obovate.

Fig. 7. Chenopodium polyspermum (EH), Parts of inflorescences X 0.7. ILL. MARJA KOISTINEN

Inflorescence leafy and bracteate throughout, composed of axillary dichasia which may be lax, wide and up to 10 cm long, or ± condensed and spike-like, with all flowers pedicellate or partly in small glomerules. Flowers bisexual. Tepals 5, entirely free, not contiguous, spreading in fruit, keeled at apex, with membranous margin and obtuse apex. Stamens 1-3 or rarely 5. Stigmas 2, 0.1 (-0.2) mm. Nut falling without the perianth; pericarp not adherent to the seed. Seed horizontal, orbicular in outline, 0.9-1.2 mm; edge rounded; seed-coat brown to blackish, glossy, obscurely pitted and with radial sinuous lines. - Early summer to early autumn.

2n=18 (F U, S Sk). - [2n=18]

Distribution. Nem-BNem(-SBor). - An archaeophytic weed in the south; in modern times brought in e.g. with grain, ballast and shipments to troops. - D fairly common to scattered on the islands and in 0Jy and eastern SJy, elsewhere rare. N frequent and well established in the southeastern lowlands north to southern He and Op and south to VA; rare and casual in coastal provinces from Ro Stavanger to SF Lærdal and Jølster , and in STSkaun 1930-37 (grain mill). S on the whole common, especially in farmland areas, north to BhG, Vg, southern Vsm and Gst, but fairly rare in parts of the southern uplands; rare north to southern Vrm, southeastern Dir and His; further north rare and ± casual near the coast; Jmt Brunflo 1930, Östersund 1935, PL Arjeplog 1941. F archaeophytic in the south; fairly common at least in V, U, southern St and southern EH\ further north mostly casual (tips, docks, or brought with wartime transports), known from EP Kaskinen, Kristiinankaupunki, Vaasa, PS Kuopio, Pieksämäki rural municipality, PK, KP ( ± established in Haapavesi and Raahe), Kn Hyrynsalmi, Kajaani, Paltamo, OP Oulu, PeP Kemi, Simo and KiL Muonio.

Fig . 8. Chenopodium murale (U). Habit x 0.5. ILL. MARJA KOISTINEN

Europe except for the extreme north, rare in the Mediterranean; Turkey, the Caucasus, W Siberia; also North America (not native).

Habitat. Bare, damp to moderately dry soil; favoured by a good nutrient supply but apparently not strongly nitrophilous (e.g. only rarely seen at dung heaps). - Gardens, fields, roadsides, plantations, tips and filling soil; outside settlements ditch banks and gravelly lake-shores.

Variation. Under long-day conditions plants are usually green to reddish and the leaf-blades are ovate with acute apex, whereas under short-day conditions (in the autumn) plants are green and the blades are elliptic with obtuse apex. Forms which show the same characters independently of day-length may exist, but they cannot be distinguished among this photoperiodically determined variation, and no taxonomic recognition can be adopted. - Pollen, seed and inflorescence characters indicate that C. polyspermum has no close relatives.

  • Jonsell, B., Karlsson (2005): Chenopodiaceae - Fumariaceae (Chenopodium). Flora Nordica 2, 4-31: 15-16, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/FlNordica_chenop/FlNordica_chenop.pdf
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Stems erect or decumbent, branched, 1.5-5(-10) dm, glabrous. Leaves nonaromatic; petiole to 1.7 cm; blade ovate to elliptic or oblong, 1.5-4(-8) × 0.4-2.5 cm, base rounded to cuneate, apex obtuse to rounded or acute, glabrous. Inflorescences lateral cymes, sometimes terminal and axillary spikelike panicles; bracts absent or leaflike and gradually reduced in size distally. Flowers: perianth segments 5, distinct nearly to base, lobes elliptic to oblong, 0.7-1 × 0.5-0.8 mm, apex obtuse or rounded, not keeled, glabrous, not covering fruit at maturity; stamen 1; stigmas 2, 0.1 mm. Utricles depressed-ovoid; pericarp nonadherent, smooth. Seeds 0.8-1.3 mm diam.; seed coat brown-black, dull. 2n = 18.
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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora farinosa parasitises live Chenopodium polyspermum
Other: unusual host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chenopodium polyspermum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chenopodium polyspermum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Lipandra

Lipandra polysperma (Syn. Chenopodium polyspermum), common name many-seed goosefoot, is the only species of the monotypic plant genus Lipandra from the subfamily Chenopodioideae in the Amaranthaceae family.

Description[edit]

Lipandra polysperma is a non-aromatic, glabrous annual herb. The stems grow erect to ascending or prostrate and are branched with usually alternate, basally sometimes nearly opposite branches. The alternate leaves consist of a petiole and a simple blade. The leaf blade is thin, ovate-elliptic, with entire margins.

The inflorescences consist of loose dichasia in the axils of leaf-like bracts, sometimes of more condensed glomerules of flowers arranged spicately. The flowers are bisexual or pistillate, with (4-) 5 nearly free perianth segments, 1-3 (-5) stamens and an ovary with 2 stigmas.

In fruit, perianth segments remain unchanged. The fruit has a membranous pericarp, which is free from the seed. The horizontally orientated seeds are compressed-globose. The brown to blackish seed coat is undulately striate.[1]

Distribution[edit]

Lipandra polysperma is distributed in most regions of Europe and in temperate Asia.[2] It is widely naturalized elsewhere, as in North America.[3]

Systematics[edit]

The species was first described in 1753 by Carolus Linnaeus as Chenopodium polyspermum in Species Plantarum.[4] After phylogenetic research, Fuentes-Bazan et al. (2012) separated this species from genus Chenopodium that would otherwise have been polyphyletic. The genus Lipandra was first described by Alfred Moquin-Tandon in 1840 (in Chenopodearum monographica enumeratio, p.19.), replacing an older illegitimate name: Christian Friedrich Lessing's genus Oligandra (1835, not the Asteraceae genus Oligandra from 1832) had only one species, Oligandra atriplicoides, that was soon considered identical with Chenopodium polyspermum.[1]

Lipandra polysperma belongs to the same tribe as Chenopodium, Tribus Atripliceae.[1]

Synonyms of genus Lipandra Moq.:[1]

  • Oligandra Less. 1835 (nom illeg., non Less. 1832)
  • Gandriloa Steud. (nom. illeg.)
  • Oliganthera Endl. (nom. illeg.)
  • Chenopodium [unranked] Polysperma Standl.
  • Chenopodium subsect. Polysperma (Standl.) Kowal ex Mosyakin & Clemants

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Fuentes-Bazan, Susy; Uotila, Pertti; Borsch, Thomas (2012). "A novel phylogeny-based generic classification for Chenopodium sensu lato, and a tribal rearrangement of Chenopodioideae (Chenopodiaceae)". Willdenowia - Annals of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem 42 (1): 14–15. doi:10.3372/wi42.42101. ISSN 0511-9618. 
  2. ^ "Lipandra polysperma". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 2013-07-10. 
  3. ^ Distribution map for the northern hemisphere from: Eric Hultén, Magnus Fries: Atlas of North European vascular plants. 1986, ISBN 3-87429-263-0 at Den virtuella floran..
  4. ^ Carl von Linné: Species Plantarum. Vol. 1, Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae 1753, p. 220
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