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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Degraded forests, Plains, Dry Localities"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, oases, Mediterranean region, eastern desert and Sinai.

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Global Distribution

Egypt, tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the World.

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introduced; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Mass., Mich., Miss., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va.; native to South America; introduced in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.
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Distribution: Perhaps the most widely distributed and common species of the genus, found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and penetrating further into the temperate regions than most of the tropical species. A common weed of waste and cultivated ground in Pakistan, ascending to at least 1220 m.
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Pantropical.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Field Tips

Stem ribbed, purple.

Flower

In axillary and terminal panicles. Flowering peaks in December-April.

Fruit

An utricle, indehiscent, sub compressed, rugose, brownish.

Leaf arrangement

Alternate Spiral

Leaf Bases

Truncate

Leaf Margins

Entire

Leaf Shapes

Deltoid

Leaf Types

Simple

Habit

A slender herb.

"
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Description

Annual herb, erect or more rarely ascending, 10-75 (-100) cm. Stem rather slender, sparingly to considerably branched, angular, glabrous or more frequently increasingly hairy upwards (especially in the inflorescence) with short or longer and rather floccose multicellular hairs. Leaves glabrous or shortly to fairly long-pilose on the lower surface of the primary and most of the venation, long-petiolate (petioles up to c. 10 cm long and the longest commonly longer than the lamina), lamina deltoid-ovate to rhomboid-oblong, 2-7 x 1.5-5.5 cm, the margins occasionally obviously sinuate, shortly cuneate to sub-truncate below, obtuse and narrowly to clearly emarginate at the tip, minutely mucronate. Flowers green, in slender, axillary or terminal, often paniculate spikes c. 2.5-12 cm long and 2-5 mm wide, or in the lower part of the stem in dense axillary clusters to c. 7 mm in diameter; male and female flowers intermixed but the latter more numerous. Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to lanceolate-ovate, whitish-membranous with a very short, pale or reddish awn formed by the excurrent green midrib, bracteoles shorter than the perianth (c. 1 mm.). Perianth segments 3, very rarely 4, those of the male flowers oblong-oval, acute, concave, c. 1.5 mm, shortly mucronate; those of the female flowers narrowly oblong to narrowly spathulate, finally 1.25-1.75 mm, minutely mucronate or not, the borders white-membranous, midrib green and often thickened above. Stigmas 2-3, short, erect or almost so. Capsule subglobose, 1.25-1.5 mm, not or slightly exceeding the perianth, indehiscent or rupturing irregularly, very strongly rugose throughout. Seed c. 1-1.25 mm, round, only slightly compressed, dark brown to black with an often paler thick border, ± shining, reticulate and with shallow scurfy verrucae on the reticulum, the verrucae with the shape of the areolae.
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Elevation Range

150-1200 m
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Description

Stem erect, green or somewhat tinged purple, 40-80 cm tall, conspicuously angulate, slightly branched, glabrous. Petiole 3-6 cm, green or somewhat tinged purple; leaf blade ovate, ovate-oblong, or ovate-elliptic, 3-9 × 2.5-6 cm, base broadly cuneate or subtruncate, margin entire or slightly undulate, apex notched or rounded, with a pointed mucro. Complex thyrsoid structures terminal, 6-12 × 1.5-3 cm, branched, composed of spikes; spikes erect, slender, terminal ones longer than lateral ones; rachis 2-2.5 cm. Bracts and bracteoles lanceolate, shorter than 1 mm, apex pointed. Tepals oblong or broadly oblanceolate, 1.2-1.5 mm, apex acute. Stamens shorter than perianth; stigmas 3 or 2. Utricles green, longer than perianth, globose, slightly compressed, ca. 2 mm in diam., very rugose, indehiscent. Seeds black or brownish black, subglobose, ca. 1 mm in diam. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 34.
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Description

Plants annual, sometimes short-lived perennial in tropics and subtropics, glabrous. Stems erect, simple or with lateral branches (especially distally), 0.2-1 m. Leaves: petiole 1/2-11/2 as long as blade; blade rhombic-ovate or ovate, 1-7 × 0.5-5 cm, base rounded, cuneate, or attenuate, margins entire, plane, apex obtuse, rounded, or emarginate, mucronate. Inflorescences slender spikes aggregated into elongate terminal panicles, also from distal axils, green, leafless at least distally. Bracts of pistillate flowers ovate to lanceolate, 1 mm, shorter than tepals. Pistillate flowers: tepals 3, narrowly elliptic, obovate-elliptic or spatulate, not clawed, ± equal, 1.2-1.7 mm, apex rounded or nearly acute, mucronate or not; style branches erect; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers inconspicuous, mostly at tips of inflorescences; tepals 3; stamens 3. Utricles ovoid to compressed-ovoid, 1-1.6 mm, equaling or slightly exceeding tepals, prominently or faintly rugose, indehiscent. Seeds black or dark brown, subglobose to thick-lenticular, 1 mm diam., minutely punctulate, rather dull.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Herbs, stem green or sometimes reddish, glabrous. Leaves alternate, 5-10 x 2-5 cm, ovate, apex acute, base truncate, nerves 3-6 pairs. Spikes terminal and axillary, interrupted. Flowers unisexual, mixed, densely arranged; bracts and bracteoles similar, ovate, acuminate; tepals 3, 1.5 mm long, obovate, obtuse; stamens 3, free; ovary obovoid, styles 2, free. Achenes 2 x 1 mm, ovoid, acute, membranous; seeds biconvex, dark brown, shining with hexagonal epidermal cells."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Euxolus viridis (Linnaeus) Moquin-Tandon.
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Synonym

Amaranthus gracilis Desfontaines ex Poiret
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Abundant by arable lands and as weed of  cultivation. Plains from the the coast, 1500m. Cosmopolitan in the tropics and subtropics of the world, penetrating more widely into the temperate regions."
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General Habitat

Wastelands and degraded forests
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Cultivated, waste ground and canal banks.

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Fields, railroads, lawns, gardens, waste areas, other disturbed habitats; 0-1000m.
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Habitat & Distribution

Fields, waste places. All provinces except for NW China and Xizang [pantropical].
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Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Zizeeria knysna (Sooty blue)
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: July-December
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Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer-fall.
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Amaranthus viridis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amaranthus viridis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: Native of tropical America.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Stem and leaves are cooked and eaten. Good fodder plant. Flies observed foraging on the flowers. In a particular season the whole plant is covered with green caterpillars after which the leaves are not collected.
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Wikipedia

Amaranthus viridis

Amaranthus viridis is a cosmopolitan species in the botanical family Amaranthaceae and is commonly known as Slender Amaranth or Green Amaranth.

Gastronomy[edit]

Amaranthus viridis is eaten in Northeastern Indian state Manipur where its known as Cheng-kruk and eaten traditionally as a vegetable in South India, especially in Kerala, where it is known as "Kuppacheera" കുപ്പച്ചീര.

In Greece it is called vlita (βλήτα) and is one of the varieties of "horta" or greens known in Greek cuisine which are boiled and served with olive oil and lemon.

It is also eaten as a vegetable in parts of Africa.[1] In Jamaica it is eaten as a vegetable and is known locally as callaloo (not to be confused with callaloo of most other countries). The leaves of this plant, known as massaagu in Dhivehi, have been used in the diet of the Maldives for centuries in dishes such as mas huni.[2]

Amaranthus viridis is used as a medicinal herb in traditional Ayurvedic medicine, under the Sanskrit name Tanduliya.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.
  2. ^ Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders, A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient Ocean Kingdom. Barcelona 1999, ISBN 84-7254-801-5
  3. ^ R.V. Nair, Controversial drug plants
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