Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Common periwinkle was first introduced into North America in the 1700s as an ornamental. It is still commonly sold as an ornamental ground cover.

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Comprehensive Description

Description

Vinca minor L., common periwinkle, is a perennial evergreen ground cover that is winter hardy. It is closely related to the big leaf periwinkle (V. major L.), except in size and hardiness. Common periwinkle seldom exceeds a height of 6 inches although runners may trail long distances on the ground. The runners root at the node under moist conditions. The thick glossy leaves form a good ground cover. Small blue flowers occur indeterminately from April to September.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

Bigleaf periwinkle is native to Mediterranean Europe [1,4], Asia Minor [1], and northern Africa (review by [10]). Common periwinkle is native across all of continental Europe as far north as the Baltic States [86]. Both bigleaf [51,55,92,107] and common [29,42,50,55,97,100,103,117] periwinkle are frequently planted in North America and escape from cultivation. Periwinkles may also spread with the dumping of yard waste ([17,37], review by [10]). A review of 19th-century floras documented periwinkles in the United States by the late 1700s [112].

In the United States, bigleaf periwinkle has a U-shaped distribution from New York and Massachusetts in the east, south to Georgia, west to California, and north to Washington. Exceptions to this distributional pattern include Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, West Virginia, Florida, Oklahoma, and Nevada. Bigleaf periwinkle does not occur in the majority of the states in the Northern Great Plains or Northern and Central Rockies. Common periwinkle occurs in every state in the eastern United States from Minnesota south to Louisiana. It is discontinuously distributed in the western United States, occurring in Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, Arizona, Utah, Oregon, Washington, and Montana. The Plants Database provides a map of bigleaf and common periwinkle distributions in North America.

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Distribution and Habitat in the United States

Periwinkle has escaped cultivation and is invading natural areas throughout the eastern U.S. It inhabits open to shady sites including forests and often escapes from old homesites.

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Origin

Europe

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Lesser Periwinkle occurs occasionally in the wild throughout Illinois, except in the NW counties, where it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into the United States from the Mediterranean area of Europe as a horticultural plant. Habitats include deciduous woodlands, woodland borders, rocky bluffs or banks, cemeteries, sites of abandoned homesteads, city parks where woody vegetation occurs, and semi-shaded areas along roads. Lesser Periwinkle is commonly planted as a ground cover around shrubbery and along the foundations of buildings in both residential and commercial areas. This plant can smother the native spring wildflowers in deciduous woodlands, covering large areas of the ground. Fortunately, it rarely produces seed and therefore doesn't spread across long distances to the same extent as some other invasive plants. Faunal Associations
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs perennial. Flowering stems to 20 cm. Leaf blade oblong, ovate, or elliptic, 1-4.5 X 0.5-2.5 cm, base rounded or cuneate, margin not ciliate. Pedicel 1-1.5 cm. Sepals narrowly elliptic, 3-5 mm. Corolla lilac-blue, tube 0.9-1.1 cm, limb 2.5-3 cm in diam., lobes obliquely truncate. Filaments longer than anthers; anthers puberulent at apex. Follicles erect. Fl. May. 2n = 46.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Description

More info for the terms: caudex, coma, cover, vines

Botanical description: The following descriptions cover characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and are not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., for bigleaf periwinkle: [29,42,51,78,113]; for common periwinkle: [29,42,78,97,113]).

Periwinkles are vines [42,113] with scrambling or trailing stolons up to 3 feet (1 m) long and vertical stems 1 foot (30 cm) high [72]. The succulent stems become somewhat woody at the caudex [72]. Bigleaf periwinkle leaves are semievergreen [78], have a waxy cuticle [10], and are heart-shaped to triangular. They are 1.5 to 2.5 inches (4 to 6 cm) long [72]. Common periwinkle leaves are evergreen [113], narrow, elliptic, and 0.8 to 1.8 inches (2 to 4.5 cm) long [72].

Periwinkle flowers are violet to blue-lavender, with 5 petals radiating pinwheel-like at right angles from floral a tube. Flowers are infrequently white. The flowers of bigleaf periwinkle are larger than those of common periwinkle [72].

Periwinkle fruits are slender, cylindrical follicles up to 2 inches (5 cm) long [72]. Follicles dry, split, and release 3 to 5 seeds (review by [72]). Periwinkle seeds are naked and without a coma [29].

Periwinkles are "fairly deep-rooted" (review by [79]). Common periwinkle plants in western Montana exhibited fibrous roots ranging from 1 to 3 inches (3-8 cm) long [96]. Further descriptions of roots were unavailable as of 2009.

 


Common (left) and bigleaf (right) periwinkle flowers.

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Description and Biology

  • Plant: vine-like erect or trailing groundcover; mostly evergreen; stems slender.
  • Leaves: opposite, dark green, glossy, oval to lance-shaped, thick-textured; may be variegated.
  • Flowers, fruits and seeds: flower blue, lavender or white, about 1 in. across, five petals blunt at tip, arranged in spiral; springtime; no fruits or seeds typically.
  • Spreads: vegetatively through rhizomes.
  • Look-alikes: may be confused with several close relatives of this plant, including bigleaf periwinkle (Vinca major), imported from Europe, and Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), native only to Madagascar, both also invasive in natural areas in the mid-Atlantic and other parts of the United States; and winter creeper (Euonymus fortunei).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

General site types: Bigleaf periwinkle occurs in riparian areas ([6,21,29,33,34,49,71,112], reviews by [81,111]), forests ([29], reviews by [72,111]), grasslands, and coastal dunes (review by [111]). Bigleaf periwinkle is also associated with sites linked to human activities, including old homesites ([74,78,94], review by [72]), gardens [55], roadsides [55,92], "waste" areas ([55,78], review by [72]), and other highly disturbed areas [55].

Common periwinkle occurs in forests or "wooded" areas [29,37,45,57,60,78], including both open ([42,100,115], review by [72]) and closed ([53], reviews by [72,81]) forest. Common periwinkle also occurs along forest edges ([37], review by [25]), within second-growth forest [32], and in fields or meadows [77,78,90]. Common periwinkle is found along roadsides [3,18,42,47,48,78,94,97,100,115] or trail edges [47], at homesites ([12,35,50,74,84,85,94,103], review by [72]), in gardens [55] or yards [94], cemeteries [57,97], "waste" places [3,55,78,115], and in other disturbed sites [8,55,101,117]. At an "ancient" archeological site in the oak-beech forest region of France, common periwinkle was most abundant in disturbed areas including abandoned homesites, enclosures, and agricultural terraces, but was also found to a lesser extent in areas that showed no archeological evidence of human disturbance [35].

Elevation: Periwinkles occur at a range of elevations from sea level to 7,500 feet (2,300 m).

Elevation for sites with periwinkles in their nonnative ranges
Species Location Elevation (feet)
Bigleaf periwinkle California 7 to 650 [49]
North Carolina 5 [92]
Utah 5,000 [113]
Common periwinkle Florida 0 [24]
Utah 7,500 [113]
West Virginia 1,200 to 2,500 [9,18]

Climate: In their nonnative ranges, periwinkles do best in mild climates [4,99]. Few authors report climate data for sites with periwinkles; therefore, the climate data presented here may not represent climatic conditions throughout the nonnative ranges of periwinkles. Both species occur near Washington, DC, where the average daily temperature is 55.0 °F (12.8 °C) [94]. In Arkansas, periwinkles occur in an area with hot summers and moderately cool winters; only 4 days/year have snowfall >1.0 inch (2.5 cm). The first and last frosts in this region occur in early April and late October, respectively [55]. Bigleaf periwinkle occurs in the Huachuca Mountains, where mean daily temperatures are 79 °F (26 °C) in July and 48 °F (9 °C) in January [83]. Common periwinkle occurs on sites with mean daily temperatures in January as low as -7.8 °F (-22.1 °C) in New York [93], and in July as high as 82.2 °F (27.9 °C) in southwestern Georgia [100].

Annual rainfall is variable across the nonnative ranges of periwinkles.

Average annual rainfall for sites with periwinkles in their nonnative ranges
Species Location Annual rainfall (mm)
Both species Arkansas 1,080 [55]
Washington, DC 1,114 [94]
Bigleaf periwinkle Arizona 400 [83]
North Carolina 1,417 [92]
Common periwinkle Georgia 1,211 to 1,367 [100]
Illinois 963 [88]
New York 890 [93]
West Virginia 1,209 [18]

Periwinkles are somewhat drought tolerant; a review suggests that bigleaf periwinkle is more tolerant of drought than common periwinkle [79]. One review reports that hot, dry weather may cause bigleaf periwinkle death [7]. All bigleaf periwinkles in a greenhouse died after exposure to drying winds and intense heat (>100° F (38° C) for more than 10 days) [114]. Cold weather may damage bigleaf periwinkle (review by [7]), though one population in Ohio survived 2 of "the most severe winters of the past century, those of 1976 to 1977 and 1977 to 1978" [4].

Soils: Periwinkles are found on soils with a range of characteristics.

Parent material: Bigleaf periwinkle occurs on soils derived from granite, gneiss, or schist in Georgia [22]. In north-central Texas, it is associated with limestone [29].

Texture: In the Huachuca Mountains, bigleaf periwinkle occurs mainly on sandy-loam and sandy clay-loam riparian soils [83]. In its native range, common periwinkle is associated with soils of varying textures [35,44,53]. Common periwinkle occurs on silt loams in Ohio [58] and Illinois [88], clayey, loamy, and sandy soils in the Northeast [68], and rocky, sandy soil in Missouri [99].

Other soil characteristics: A review states that bigleaf periwinkle grows most vigorously in moist soil with only partial sun but may grow in deep shade with "poor" soil [7]. In Georgia, bigleaf periwinkle is associated with acidic clays [22]. Common periwinkle prefers moist sites [28,76,88], though it tolerates moderately well-drained soil [68]. While some sources suggest common periwinkle prefers fertile soil ([28], review by [25]), one source states that common periwinkle tolerates soils of low fertility [68]. In the oak-beech forest region of France, common periwinkle occurred on shallow soils ranging from 5.7 to 8.7 inches (14.4-22.1 cm) deep [35]. In its nonnative range, common periwinkle occurs on acid soils [18,68,88]. In France, common periwinkle occurred on soils with pH ranging from 6.7 to 7.2 [35].

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Habitat & Distribution

Jiangsu [introduced from Europe]
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Lesser Periwinkle occurs occasionally in the wild throughout Illinois, except in the NW counties, where it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into the United States from the Mediterranean area of Europe as a horticultural plant. Habitats include deciduous woodlands, woodland borders, rocky bluffs or banks, cemeteries, sites of abandoned homesteads, city parks where woody vegetation occurs, and semi-shaded areas along roads. Lesser Periwinkle is commonly planted as a ground cover around shrubbery and along the foundations of buildings in both residential and commercial areas. This plant can smother the native spring wildflowers in deciduous woodlands, covering large areas of the ground. Fortunately, it rarely produces seed and therefore doesn't spread across long distances to the same extent as some other invasive plants. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Associations

Foodplant / spot causer
few, mostly central, mostly epiphyllous, immersed, black pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta vincae causes spots on live leaf of Vinca minor
Remarks: season: 3-5

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
amphigenous, scattered, immersed, then erumpent, dimorphic conidioma of Ceuthospora coelomycetous anamorph of Ceuthospora feurichii feeds on moribund leaf of Vinca minor
Remarks: season: 2-6

Foodplant / saprobe
amphigenous, scattered, abundant pycnidium of Macrophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Macrophoma vincae is saprobic on dead leaf of Vinca minor
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Phacidium vincae is saprobic on dead Vinca minor

Foodplant / saprobe
linear, in rows,covered then erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis lirella is saprobic on dead, dry stem of Vinca minor

Foodplant / parasite
Puccinia vincae parasitises live sterile, unnaturally erect of stem of Vinca minor
Other: unusual host/prey

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General Ecology

Fuels and Fire Regimes

More info for the terms: cover, fire exclusion, fire intensity, fire regime, fuel, hardwood, litter, presence, tree

Fuels: As of this writing (2009), there was no information available regarding the flammability of periwinkles. Some evidence suggests that periwinkles may alter local fuel characteristics by changing community structure, litter dynamics, fuel arrangement, and understory temperatures. In Michigan, understory structure in a mixed-hardwood dune successional forest was changed when mats of common periwinkle replaced canopy tree seedlings and herbaceous understory plants [17]. Common periwinkle also greatly reduced the overall accumulation of leaf litter in this area (Bultman personal observation cited in [17]). In mature oak-hickory forest in southwestern Illinois, common periwinkle in the understory led to an increase in the amount of vegetated surface area [88]. Near Sydney, Australia, areas dominated by bigleaf periwinkle had significantly cooler temperatures than sites with little bigleaf periwinkle cover (P<0.01) [31]. The impact of these altered fuel characteristics likely varies based on departure from historical conditions and the dynamics of local FIRE REGIMES.

FIRE REGIMES: It is not known what type of fire regime periwinkles are best adapted to. In North America, periwinkles are found in plant communities that historically experienced long (e.g., northern hardwood, southern floodplain forests) and short (e.g., Appalachian oak-hickory-pine forests) fire-return intervals (see the Fire Regime Table). In many areas where periwinkles occur, historical FIRE REGIMES have been dramatically altered due to fire exclusion and massive disturbances associated with human settlement.

It is unclear how the presence of periwinkles may affect FIRE REGIMES in invaded communities. In ecosystems where periwinkles replace plants with similar fuel characteristics, they may alter fire intensity or slightly modify an existing fire regime. If periwinkle spread introduces novel fuel properties to the invaded ecosystem, fire behavior, and potentially fire regime, may be altered (see these citations: [14,26]). This topic warrants additional study.

See the Fire Regime Table for further information on FIRE REGIMES of vegetation communities in which periwinkles may occur.

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Vegetative regeneration

Vegetative regeneration is very important to the establishment and spread of both bigleaf ([74,113], reviews by [81,111]) and common ([66,88], review by [81]) periwinkles. Bigleaf periwinkle spreads with "great rapidity" by arching stolons, which root at the tips (review by [7]). Periwinkles form mats and extensive infestations even under forest canopies ([32], review by [72]). Given their ability to spread with the dumping of yard waste ([17,37], review by [10]), it is likely that periwinkles establish from plant fragments.

Bigleaf periwinkle grows in patches around the bases of trees or spreads up and down drainages through vegetative spread (review by [7]). In Belgium, common periwinkle distribution was not significantly clumped within forest patches despite its inability to disperse long distances (P>0.05) [56]. See Impacts for more information about vegetative rate of spread in periwinkles.

 

Stolons and roots of common periwinkle.

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: breeding system

Most periwinkle reproduction occurs through vegetative spread. Seeds are rarely produced [7,45,113], and seedlings are rarely observed in the field ([21], review by [7]).

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: chamaephyte, hemicryptophyte

Raunkiaer [82] life form:
Chamaephyte
Hemicryptophyte

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Life Form

More info for the terms: forb, vine

Vine-forb

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Seed banking

There is limited information on seed banking in periwinkles. Though bigleaf periwinkle was the most abundant species in riparian areas in the Huachuca Mountains of Arizona, it was a minor component of the soil seed bank. Perennial, herbaceous native species dominated soil seed bank samples [83].

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Seed dispersal

No information is available on the dispersal of bigleaf periwinkle seeds. Common periwinkle seeds are dispersed by ants in its native range [54,56]. Some authors suggest that common periwinkle has no active dispersal mechanism [44]. One review states that common periwinkle does not spread to new areas by seed in its nonnative range [81].

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Seedling establishment and plant growth

Documentation of periwinkle establishment by seed is rare. Bigleaf periwinkle seedlings were found in riparian areas in California [21], though seedlings are rarely found in the field (review by [7]). Documentation of common periwinkle seedlings was not found in the literature as of 2009.

Limitations to periwinkle growth have been infrequently documented. Bigleaf periwinkle growth is limited by dry or cold temperatures, and hot, dry weather may cause death (review by [7]). Bigleaf periwinkle was limited to shady areas of a riparian canyon bottom at the Ramsey Canyon Preserve (Gebow 2009 personal communication [41]).

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Germination

As of 2003, periwinkle seed viability in the field was unknown (review by [72]). In laboratory studies, common periwinkle seeds exhibited an "extended dormancy period"; 70% germination occurred after 30 days using a combination of acid scarification and 90-day cold stratification. No germination occurred after 30-day stratification-scarification treatment or scarification treatment alone [110].

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Seed production

One review states that bigleaf periwinkle does not reproduce by seed in the wild in California [7], though occasional seedlings have been found [21]. Common periwinkle rarely produces seeds [45,113].

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Pollination and breeding system

Periwinkles are cross-pollinating plants [38].

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Bigleaf periwinkle generally flowers from March to June [4,29,42,78] but may bloom year-round in north-central Texas [29]. In the Carolinas bigleaf periwinkle produces fruit in June and July [78].

Common periwinkle generally flowers from between March and June depending on location [4,29,42,45,50,78,97]. In Georgia, most common periwinkle flowering occurs in early March, though flowering was observed as early as 28 February [40]. Common periwinkle fruits are produced from May to July in the southeastern United States ([78], review by [72]).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vinca minor

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vinca minor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

Common periwinkle can be affected by blight, canker, leaf spot, and root rot.

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Management

Prevention and Control

Periwinkle can be pulled by hand, dug up or raked up, being sure to remove underground portions. Where appropriate, mowing can be used to cut plants back but will likely have to be repeated regularly. Mowing followed soon after by application of a systemic herbicide would improve control greatly.

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

‘Alba’, ‘Atropurpurea’, ‘Bowles’, ‘Variegata’, ‘Multiplex.’ Seedlings are available at most commercial nurseries.

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Control

Please contact your local agricultural extension specialist or county weed specialist to learn what works best in your area and how to use it safely. Always read label and safety instructions for each control method. Trade names and control measures appear in this document only to provide specific information. USDA, NRCS does not guarantee or warranty the products and control methods named, and other products may be equally effective.

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Little or no maintenance is required after establishment. Well-established plantings may be clipped to promote new growth. Chemical or mechanical weeding may be need to control unwanted vegetation.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Other uses and values

Periwinkles are popular ornamental groundcovers [10,37,68]. Their establishment in North America is largely due to their escape from cultivation [29,42,50,51,55,92,97,100,103,107]. Common periwinkle is easily propagated by cuttings [66]. Common periwinkle was planted for erosion control near Washington, DC [37]. Periwinkles are valued medicinal herbs (reviews by [7,81]), and common periwinkle is considered an aphrodisiac (review by [81]).

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Palatability and/or nutritional value: Periwinkles are generally unpalatable and have little nutritional value. Bigleaf periwinkle is listed as poisonous in South Africa [16]. Common periwinkle was an infrequent food item of the volcano rabbit in Mexico [20] and white-tailed deer in Indiana [91]. Caged Canada geese would not feed on common periwinkle, even when it was the only forage available [23].

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

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Uses

Erosion control: Its use should normally be restricted to partially shaded areas and north or east exposures on ramps and inclines. It should be considered on roadsides in specially adapted locations and sites.

Ornamental and beautification: Common periwinkle is particularly desirable as an attractive evergreen ground cover in mild climates. It is valuable on yards, banks, or odd areas as a low maintenance ground cover. It tolerates light traffic but should not be used where frequent trampling occurs.

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Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Periwinkle grows vigorously and forms dense and extensive mats along the forest floor, displacing native herbaceous and woody plant species.

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Wikipedia

Vinca minor

Vinca minor (common names lesser periwinkle[1] or dwarf periwinkle) is a species of flowering plant native to central and southern Europe, from Portugal and France north to the Netherlands and the Baltic States, east to the Caucasus, and also southwestern Asia in Turkey. Other vernacular names used in cultivation include small periwinkle, common periwinkle, and sometimes in the United States, myrtle or creeping myrtle,[2] although this is misleading, as the name myrtle normally refers to the Myrtus species.

Leaf margins for comparison; Vinca minor above, Vinca major below; note hairless margin of V. minor, hairy margin of V. major. Scale in mm.

Description[edit]

Vinca minor is a trailing, viny subshrub, spreading along the ground and rooting along the stems to form large clonal colonies and occasionally scrambling up to 40 centimetres (16 in) high but never twining or climbing. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, 2–4.5 centimetres (0.79–1.77 in) long and 1–2.5 centimetres (0.39–0.98 in) broad, glossy dark green with a leathery texture and an entire margin.

The flowers are solitary in the leaf axils and are produced mainly from early spring to mid summer but with a few flowers still produced into the autumn; they are violet-purple (pale purple or white in some cultivated selections), 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.18 in) diameter, with a five-lobed corolla. The fruit is a pair of follicles 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) long, containing numerous seeds.

The closely related species Vinca major is similar, but larger in all parts, and also has relatively broader leaves with a hairy margin.

Cultivation[edit]

Ground cover with dense growth

The species is commonly grown as a groundcover in temperate gardens for its evergreen foliage, spring and summer flowers, ease of culture, and dense habit that smothers most weeds. The species has few pests or diseases outside its native range and is widely naturalised and classified as an invasive species in parts of North America. Invasion can be restricted by removal of rooting stems in spring.[3] Once established, it is difficult to eradicate, as its waxy leaves shed most water-based herbicide sprays. Removal involves cutting, followed by immediate application of concentrated glyphosphate or triclopyr to the cut stems. Repeated chemical treatments may be necessary, along with digging up the roots where feasible.[4]

Cultivars[edit]

There are numerous cultivars, with different flower colours and variegated foliage. Many have a less vigorous habit than the species, and are therefore more suitable for smaller gardens. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • 'Argenteovariegata'[5] (leaves have creamy white margins)
  • 'Atropurpurea'[6] (purple flowers)
  • 'Azurea Flore Pleno'[7] (double blue flowers)
  • 'La Grave'[8] (violet flowers)

Chemical constituents[edit]

Vinca minor contains more than 50 alkaloids,[9] and vincamine is the molecule responsible for Vinca's nootropic activity.[citation needed] Other alkaloids include reserpine, reserpinine, akuammicine, majdine, vinerine, ervine, vineridine, tombozine, vincamajine, vincanine, vincanidine,[10] vincamone, apovincamine, vincaminol, desoxyvincaminol,[11] vincorine[12] and perivincine.[13]

Vinpocetine (brand names: Cavinton, Intelectol; chemical name: ethyl apovincaminate) is a semisynthetic derivative alkaloid of vincamine.

Color[edit]

The color name periwinkle is derived from the flower.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  2. ^ Foster, Rachel. "So Many Myrtles — Unraveling the confusion and contradiction". Retrieved August 19, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Vinca minor L. Common periwinkle". USDA. Plants Profile. Retrieved August 26, 2006. 
  4. ^ "Vines". NPS. November 11, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Vinca minor Argenteovariegata". RHS. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Vinca minor Atropurpurea". RHS. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Vinca minor Azurea Flore Pleno". RHS. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Vinca minor La Grave". RHS. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  9. ^ Khanavi, M.; Pourmoslemi, S.; Farahanikia, B.; Hadjiakhoondi, A.; Ostad, S. N. (2010). "Cytotoxicity ofVinca minor". Pharmaceutical Biology 48 (1): 96–100. doi:10.3109/13880200903046187. PMID 20645762.  edit
  10. ^ Tulyaganov, T. S.; Nigmatullaev, A. M. (2000). Chemistry of Natural Compounds 36 (5): 540. doi:10.1023/A:1002820414086.  edit
  11. ^ Smeyers, Y. G.; Smeyers, N. J.; Randez, J. J.; Hernandez-Laguna, A.; Galvez-Ruano, E. (1991). "A structural and pharmacological study of alkaloids of Vinca Minor". Molecular Engineering 1 (2): 153. doi:10.1007/BF00420051.  edit
  12. ^ Yasui, Y.; Kinugawa, T.; Takemoto, Y. (2009). "Synthetic studies on vincorine: Access to the 3a,8a-dialkyl-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo\2,3-b]indole skeleton". Chemical Communications (28): 4275. doi:10.1039/b907210a.  edit
  13. ^ Farnsworth, N. R.; Draus, F. J.; Sager, R. W.; Bianculli, J. A. (2006). "Studies on Vinca major L. (Apocynaceae) I. Isolation of perivincine". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 49 (9): 589. doi:10.1002/jps.3030490908.  edit

Further reading[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The genus name for periwinkles is Vinca L. (Apocynaceae). This review summarizes information on the following periwinkle species [29,42,61,78,113]:

Vinca major L., bigleaf periwinkle

Vinca minor L., common periwinkle
In this review, species are referred to by their common names, and "periwinkles" refers to both species.
Numerous periwinkle cultivars are available [30,66].

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Common Names

bigleaf periwinkle

big periwinkle

greater periwinkle

large periwinkle

periwinkle

vinca

common periwinkle

lesser periwinkle

periwinkle

vinca

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