Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Common periwinkle was first introduced into North America in the 1700s as an ornamental. It is still commonly sold as an ornamental ground cover.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

Vinca minor L., common periwinkle, is a perennial evergreen ground cover that is winter hardy. It is closely related to the big leaf periwinkle (V. major L.), except in size and hardiness. Common periwinkle seldom exceeds a height of 6 inches although runners may trail long distances on the ground. The runners root at the node under moist conditions. The thick glossy leaves form a good ground cover. Small blue flowers occur indeterminately from April to September.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 1.0 of 5

Distribution

Bigleaf periwinkle is native to Mediterranean Europe [1,4], Asia Minor [1], and northern Africa (review by [10]). Common periwinkle is native across all of continental Europe as far north as the Baltic States [86]. Both bigleaf [51,55,92,107] and common [29,42,50,55,97,100,103,117] periwinkle are frequently planted in North America and escape from cultivation. Periwinkles may also spread with the dumping of yard waste ([17,37], review by [10]). A review of 19th-century floras documented periwinkles in the United States by the late 1700s [112].

In the United States, bigleaf periwinkle has a U-shaped distribution from New York and Massachusetts in the east, south to Georgia, west to California, and north to Washington. Exceptions to this distributional pattern include Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, West Virginia, Florida, Oklahoma, and Nevada. Bigleaf periwinkle does not occur in the majority of the states in the Northern Great Plains or Northern and Central Rockies. Common periwinkle occurs in every state in the eastern United States from Minnesota south to Louisiana. It is discontinuously distributed in the western United States, occurring in Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, Arizona, Utah, Oregon, Washington, and Montana. The Plants Database provides a map of bigleaf and common periwinkle distributions in North America.

  • 1. Ali, S. I.; Qaiser, M.; [and others]. 2009. Flora of Pakistan, [Online]. Islamabad: Pakistan Agricultural Research Council; Karachi, Pakistan: University of Karachi; St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden. In: eFloras. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Herbaria (Producers). Available: http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=5; http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/pakistan/welcome.shtml [73152]
  • 10. Bossard, Carla C.; Randall, John M.; Hoshovsky, Marc C., eds. 2000. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 360 p. [38054]
  • 100. Thorne, Robert F. 1954. The vascular plants of southwestern Georgia. The American Midland Naturalist. 52(2): 257-327. [73998]
  • 103. Tucker, G. E. 1972. The vascular flora of Bluff Mountain, Ashe County, North Carolina. Castanea. 37(1): 2-26. [73963]
  • 107. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Federal Register 50 CFR Part 17: RIN 1018-AD35. Rules and regulations: Final rule. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Determination of threatened status for one plant, Arctostaphylos pallida (pallid manzanita), from the northern Diablo Range of California. Federal Register: 1998, April 22. 63(77): 19842-19850. [73951]
  • 112. Wells, Elizabeth Fortson; Brown, Rebecca Louise. 2000. An annotated checklist of the vascular plants in the forest at historic Mount Vernon, Virginia: a legacy from the past. Castanea. 65(4): 242-257. [47363]
  • 117. Wunderlin, Richard P.; Hansen, Bruce F. 2003. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. 2nd edition. Gainesville, FL: The University of Florida Press. 787 p. [69433]
  • 17. Bultman, Thomas L.; DeWitt, David J. 2008. Effect of an invasive ground cover plant on the abundance and diversity of a forest floor spider assemblage. Biological Invasions. 10: 749-756. [72432]
  • 29. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 37. Fleming, Peggy; Kanal, Raclare. 1995. Annotated list of vascular plants of Rock Creek Park, National Park Service, Washington, DC. Castanea. 60(4): 283-316. [71991]
  • 4. Andreas, Barbara K.; Cooperrider, Tom S. 1979. The Apocynaceae of Ohio. Castanea. 44(4): 238-241. [55119]
  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 50. Hill, Steven R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea. 51(4): 265-305. [73995]
  • 51. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 55. Hyatt, Philip E. 1993. A survey of the vascular flora of Baxter County, Arkansas. Castanea. 58(2): 115-140. [73974]
  • 86. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. 2009. Flora Europaea, [Online]. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (Producer). Available: http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html. [41088]
  • 92. Stalter, Richard; Lamont, Eric E. 1997. Flora of North Carolina's Outer Banks, Ocracoke Island to Virginia. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 124(1): 71-88. [73954]
  • 97. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and Habitat in the United States

Periwinkle has escaped cultivation and is invading natural areas throughout the eastern U.S. It inhabits open to shady sites including forests and often escapes from old homesites.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Origin

Europe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Lesser Periwinkle occurs occasionally in the wild throughout Illinois, except in the NW counties, where it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into the United States from the Mediterranean area of Europe as a horticultural plant. Habitats include deciduous woodlands, woodland borders, rocky bluffs or banks, cemeteries, sites of abandoned homesteads, city parks where woody vegetation occurs, and semi-shaded areas along roads. Lesser Periwinkle is commonly planted as a ground cover around shrubbery and along the foundations of buildings in both residential and commercial areas. This plant can smother the native spring wildflowers in deciduous woodlands, covering large areas of the ground. Fortunately, it rarely produces seed and therefore doesn't spread across long distances to the same extent as some other invasive plants. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 1.0 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 1.0 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs perennial. Flowering stems to 20 cm. Leaf blade oblong, ovate, or elliptic, 1-4.5 X 0.5-2.5 cm, base rounded or cuneate, margin not ciliate. Pedicel 1-1.5 cm. Sepals narrowly elliptic, 3-5 mm. Corolla lilac-blue, tube 0.9-1.1 cm, limb 2.5-3 cm in diam., lobes obliquely truncate. Filaments longer than anthers; anthers puberulent at apex. Follicles erect. Fl. May. 2n = 46.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 3.0 of 5

Description

More info for the terms: caudex, coma, cover, vines

Botanical description: The following descriptions cover characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and are not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., for bigleaf periwinkle: [29,42,51,78,113]; for common periwinkle: [29,42,78,97,113]).

Periwinkles are vines [42,113] with scrambling or trailing stolons up to 3 feet (1 m) long and vertical stems 1 foot (30 cm) high [72]. The succulent stems become somewhat woody at the caudex [72]. Bigleaf periwinkle leaves are semievergreen [78], have a waxy cuticle [10], and are heart-shaped to triangular. They are 1.5 to 2.5 inches (4 to 6 cm) long [72]. Common periwinkle leaves are evergreen [113], narrow, elliptic, and 0.8 to 1.8 inches (2 to 4.5 cm) long [72].

Periwinkle flowers are violet to blue-lavender, with 5 petals radiating pinwheel-like at right angles from floral a tube. Flowers are infrequently white. The flowers of bigleaf periwinkle are larger than those of common periwinkle [72].

Periwinkle fruits are slender, cylindrical follicles up to 2 inches (5 cm) long [72]. Follicles dry, split, and release 3 to 5 seeds (review by [72]). Periwinkle seeds are naked and without a coma [29].

Periwinkles are "fairly deep-rooted" (review by [79]). Common periwinkle plants in western Montana exhibited fibrous roots ranging from 1 to 3 inches (3-8 cm) long [96]. Further descriptions of roots were unavailable as of 2009.

 


Common (left) and bigleaf (right) periwinkle flowers.

  • 10. Bossard, Carla C.; Randall, John M.; Hoshovsky, Marc C., eds. 2000. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 360 p. [38054]
  • 113. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 29. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 51. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 72. Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 93 p. Available online: http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/gtr/gtr_srs062/ [2004, December 10]. [50788]
  • 78. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 79. Radtke, Klaus W. H. 1983. Living more safely in the chaparral-urban interface. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-67. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 50 p. [35802]
  • 96. Stone, Katharine R. 2009. [Personal observation]. Regarding roots of Vinca spp. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; FEIS files. [75182]
  • 97. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description and Biology

  • Plant: vine-like erect or trailing groundcover; mostly evergreen; stems slender.
  • Leaves: opposite, dark green, glossy, oval to lance-shaped, thick-textured; may be variegated.
  • Flowers, fruits and seeds: flower blue, lavender or white, about 1 in. across, five petals blunt at tip, arranged in spiral; springtime; no fruits or seeds typically.
  • Spreads: vegetatively through rhizomes.
  • Look-alikes: may be confused with several close relatives of this plant, including bigleaf periwinkle (Vinca major), imported from Europe, and Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), native only to Madagascar, both also invasive in natural areas in the mid-Atlantic and other parts of the United States; and winter creeper (Euonymus fortunei).

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

General site types: Bigleaf periwinkle occurs in riparian areas ([6,21,29,33,34,49,71,112], reviews by [81,111]), forests ([29], reviews by [72,111]), grasslands, and coastal dunes (review by [111]). Bigleaf periwinkle is also associated with sites linked to human activities, including old homesites ([74,78,94], review by [72]), gardens [55], roadsides [55,92], "waste" areas ([55,78], review by [72]), and other highly disturbed areas [55].

Common periwinkle occurs in forests or "wooded" areas [29,37,45,57,60,78], including both open ([42,100,115], review by [72]) and closed ([53], reviews by [72,81]) forest. Common periwinkle also occurs along forest edges ([37], review by [25]), within second-growth forest [32], and in fields or meadows [77,78,90]. Common periwinkle is found along roadsides [3,18,42,47,48,78,94,97,100,115] or trail edges [47], at homesites ([12,35,50,74,84,85,94,103], review by [72]), in gardens [55] or yards [94], cemeteries [57,97], "waste" places [3,55,78,115], and in other disturbed sites [8,55,101,117]. At an "ancient" archeological site in the oak-beech forest region of France, common periwinkle was most abundant in disturbed areas including abandoned homesites, enclosures, and agricultural terraces, but was also found to a lesser extent in areas that showed no archeological evidence of human disturbance [35].

Elevation: Periwinkles occur at a range of elevations from sea level to 7,500 feet (2,300 m).

Elevation for sites with periwinkles in their nonnative ranges
Species Location Elevation (feet)
Bigleaf periwinkle California 7 to 650 [49]
North Carolina 5 [92]
Utah 5,000 [113]
Common periwinkle Florida 0 [24]
Utah 7,500 [113]
West Virginia 1,200 to 2,500 [9,18]

Climate: In their nonnative ranges, periwinkles do best in mild climates [4,99]. Few authors report climate data for sites with periwinkles; therefore, the climate data presented here may not represent climatic conditions throughout the nonnative ranges of periwinkles. Both species occur near Washington, DC, where the average daily temperature is 55.0 °F (12.8 °C) [94]. In Arkansas, periwinkles occur in an area with hot summers and moderately cool winters; only 4 days/year have snowfall >1.0 inch (2.5 cm). The first and last frosts in this region occur in early April and late October, respectively [55]. Bigleaf periwinkle occurs in the Huachuca Mountains, where mean daily temperatures are 79 °F (26 °C) in July and 48 °F (9 °C) in January [83]. Common periwinkle occurs on sites with mean daily temperatures in January as low as -7.8 °F (-22.1 °C) in New York [93], and in July as high as 82.2 °F (27.9 °C) in southwestern Georgia [100].

Annual rainfall is variable across the nonnative ranges of periwinkles.

Average annual rainfall for sites with periwinkles in their nonnative ranges
Species Location Annual rainfall (mm)
Both species Arkansas 1,080 [55]
Washington, DC 1,114 [94]
Bigleaf periwinkle Arizona 400 [83]
North Carolina 1,417 [92]
Common periwinkle Georgia 1,211 to 1,367 [100]
Illinois 963 [88]
New York 890 [93]
West Virginia 1,209 [18]

Periwinkles are somewhat drought tolerant; a review suggests that bigleaf periwinkle is more tolerant of drought than common periwinkle [79]. One review reports that hot, dry weather may cause bigleaf periwinkle death [7]. All bigleaf periwinkles in a greenhouse died after exposure to drying winds and intense heat (>100° F (38° C) for more than 10 days) [114]. Cold weather may damage bigleaf periwinkle (review by [7]), though one population in Ohio survived 2 of "the most severe winters of the past century, those of 1976 to 1977 and 1977 to 1978" [4].

Soils: Periwinkles are found on soils with a range of characteristics.

Parent material: Bigleaf periwinkle occurs on soils derived from granite, gneiss, or schist in Georgia [22]. In north-central Texas, it is associated with limestone [29].

Texture: In the Huachuca Mountains, bigleaf periwinkle occurs mainly on sandy-loam and sandy clay-loam riparian soils [83]. In its native range, common periwinkle is associated with soils of varying textures [35,44,53]. Common periwinkle occurs on silt loams in Ohio [58] and Illinois [88], clayey, loamy, and sandy soils in the Northeast [68], and rocky, sandy soil in Missouri [99].

Other soil characteristics: A review states that bigleaf periwinkle grows most vigorously in moist soil with only partial sun but may grow in deep shade with "poor" soil [7]. In Georgia, bigleaf periwinkle is associated with acidic clays [22]. Common periwinkle prefers moist sites [28,76,88], though it tolerates moderately well-drained soil [68]. While some sources suggest common periwinkle prefers fertile soil ([28], review by [25]), one source states that common periwinkle tolerates soils of low fertility [68]. In the oak-beech forest region of France, common periwinkle occurred on shallow soils ranging from 5.7 to 8.7 inches (14.4-22.1 cm) deep [35]. In its nonnative range, common periwinkle occurs on acid soils [18,68,88]. In France, common periwinkle occurred on soils with pH ranging from 6.7 to 7.2 [35].

  • 100. Thorne, Robert F. 1954. The vascular plants of southwestern Georgia. The American Midland Naturalist. 52(2): 257-327. [73998]
  • 101. Tobe, John D.; Fairey, John E., III; Gaddy, L. L. 1992. Flora of the Chauga River gorge, Oconee County, South Carolina. Castanea. 57(2): 77-109. [72019]
  • 103. Tucker, G. E. 1972. The vascular flora of Bluff Mountain, Ashe County, North Carolina. Castanea. 37(1): 2-26. [73963]
  • 111. Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. 548 p. [71904]
  • 112. Wells, Elizabeth Fortson; Brown, Rebecca Louise. 2000. An annotated checklist of the vascular plants in the forest at historic Mount Vernon, Virginia: a legacy from the past. Castanea. 65(4): 242-257. [47363]
  • 113. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 114. Whitcomb, Carl E.; Fredell, Matt. 1979. Weed control in newly planted ground covers with preemergent herbicides. In: Research Report P-791. [Stillwater, OK]: Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station: 54-55. [74855]
  • 115. White, David J.; Haber, Erich; Keddy, Cathy. 1993. Invasive plants of natural habitats in Canada: An integrated review of wetland and upland species and legislation governing their control. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Wildlife Service. 121 p. [71462]
  • 117. Wunderlin, Richard P.; Hansen, Bruce F. 2003. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. 2nd edition. Gainesville, FL: The University of Florida Press. 787 p. [69433]
  • 12. Bostick, P. E. 1971. Vascular plants of Panola Mountain, Georgia. Castanea. 36(3): 194-209. [73960]
  • 18. Bush, Eleanor M. 1976. Vascular flora along the Tygart Valley River near Arden, West Virginia. Castanea. 41(4): 283-308. [73983]
  • 21. Chess, Katie. 2005. Vinca seen propagating by seed again (California, USA), [Online]. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST) listserve digest #139: Posting #10--September 2005. The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/listarch/arch139.html#01 [2009, July 7]. [73949]
  • 22. Coile, Nancy C. 1981. Flora of Elbert County, Georgia. Castanea. 46(3): 173-194. [73970]
  • 24. Craighead, Frank C., Sr. 1971. The trees of south Florida. Vol. 1: The natural environments and their succession. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press. 212 p. [17802]
  • 25. Czarapata, Elizabeth J. 2005. Invasive plants of the Upper Midwest: An illustrated guide to their identification and control. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 215 p. [71442]
  • 28. Darcy, Alysa J.; Burkart, Megan C. 2002. Allelopathic potential of Vinca minor, an invasive exotic plant in west Michigan forests. Bios. 73(4): 127-132. [73916]
  • 29. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 3. Allard, H. A.; Leonard, E. C. 1962. List of vascular plants of the northern Triassic area of Virginia. Castanea. 27(1): 1-56. [73996]
  • 32. Drake, Sara J.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Parr, Patricia D. 2003. Assessment of non-native invasive plant species on the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Castanea. 68(1): 15-30. [49846]
  • 33. Dudley, Tom. 1998. Exotic plant invasions in California riparian areas and wetlands. Fremontia. 26(4): 24-29. [47116]
  • 34. Dudley, Tom; Collins, Beth. 1995. Biological invasions in California wetlands: The impacts and control of non-indigenous species in natural areas. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. 59 p. [+ appendices]. [47513]
  • 35. Dupouey, J. L.; Dambrine, E.; Laffite, J. D.; Moares, C. 2002. Irreversible impact of past land use on forest soils and biodiversity. Ecology. 83(11): 2978-2984. [73917]
  • 37. Fleming, Peggy; Kanal, Raclare. 1995. Annotated list of vascular plants of Rock Creek Park, National Park Service, Washington, DC. Castanea. 60(4): 283-316. [71991]
  • 4. Andreas, Barbara K.; Cooperrider, Tom S. 1979. The Apocynaceae of Ohio. Castanea. 44(4): 238-241. [55119]
  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 44. Grashof-Bokdam, C. J.; Geertsema, W. 1998. The effect of isolation and history on colonization patterns of plant species in secondary woodland. Journal of Biogeography. 25(5): 837-846. [73922]
  • 45. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 47. Harrelson, Sarah M.; Cantino, Philip D. 2006. The terrestrial vascular flora of Strounds Run State Park, Athens County, Ohio. Rhodora. 108(934): 142-183. [72485]
  • 48. Hayden, W. John; Haskins, Melanie L.; Johnson, Miles F.; Gardner, James M. 1989. Flora of Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia. Castanea. 54(2): 87-104. [73980]
  • 49. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 50. Hill, Steven R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea. 51(4): 265-305. [73995]
  • 53. Honnay, O.; Endels, P.; Vereecken, H.; Hermy, M. 1999. The role of patch area and habitat diversity in explaining native plant species richness in disturbed suburban forest patches in northern Belgium. Diversity and Distributions. 5(4): 129-141. [73919]
  • 55. Hyatt, Philip E. 1993. A survey of the vascular flora of Baxter County, Arkansas. Castanea. 58(2): 115-140. [73974]
  • 57. James, Robert Leslie. 1956. Introduced plants in northeast Tennessee. Castanea. 21(2): 44-52. [72111]
  • 58. Jog, Suneeti K.; Kartesz, John T.; Johansen, Jeffrey R.; Wilder, George J. 2005. Floristic study of Highland Heights Community Park, Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Castanea. 70(2): 136-145. [73957]
  • 6. Baumgartner, Kendra; Warren, Jeremy G. 2005. Persistence of Xylella fastidiosa in riparian hosts near northern California vineyards. Plant Disease. 89(10): 1097-1102. [73878]
  • 60. Jones, Ronald L. 1983. Woody flora of Shiloh National Military Park, Hardin County, Tennessee. Castanea. 48(4): 289-299. [71737]
  • 68. Lorenz, David G.; Sharp, W. Curtis.; Ruffner, Joseph D. 1991. Conservation plants for the Northeast. Program Aid 1154. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 43 p. [47719]
  • 7. Bean, Catlin; Russo, Mary J. 2005. Element stewardship abstract: Vinca major, Vinca minor--periwinkle, [Online]. In: Management library: Control methods--plants. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST). Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/vincmaj.pdf [2009, July 13]. [73947]
  • 71. McBride, Joe R. 1994. SRM 203: Riparian woodland. In: Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management: 13-14. [66662]
  • 72. Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 93 p. Available online: http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/gtr/gtr_srs062/ [2004, December 10]. [50788]
  • 74. Native Plant Society of Oregon, Emerald Chapter. 2008. Exotic gardening and landscaping plants invasive in native habitats of the southern Willamette Valley, [Online]. In: Invasive plants--Invasive exotic plants list 2008. Native Plant Society of Oregon (Producer). Available: http://www.emeraldnpso.org/PDFs/Invas_Orn.pdf [2009, June 24]. [74811]
  • 76. Phelps, Earle B. 1932. Wild-flower planting about sewage treatment works. Sewage Works Journal. 4(4): 665-668. [73997]
  • 77. Plunkett, Gregory M.; Hall, Gustav W. 1995. The vascular flora and vegetation of western Isle of Wight County, Virginia. Castanea. 60(1): 30-59. [73990]
  • 78. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 79. Radtke, Klaus W. H. 1983. Living more safely in the chaparral-urban interface. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-67. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 50 p. [35802]
  • 8. Beck, John T.; Van Horn, Gene S. 2007. The vascular flora of Prentice Cooper State Forest and Wildlife Management Area, Tennessee. Castanea. 72(1): 15-44. [72483]
  • 81. Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. 1996. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 111 p. [43868]
  • 83. Richter, Rebecca; Stromberg, Juliet C. 2005. Soil seed banks of two montane riparian areas: implications for restoration. Biodiversity and Conservation. 14(4): 993-1016. [60044]
  • 84. Rodgers, C. Leland. 1969. Vascular plants in Horsepasture Gorge. Castanea. 34(4): 374-394. [73964]
  • 85. Rodgers, C. Leland; Shake, Roy E. 1965. Survey of vascular plants in Bearcamp Creek watershed. Castanea. 30(3): 149-166. [73956]
  • 88. Schulz Kurt; Thelen, Carol. 2000. Impact and control of Vinca minor L. in an Illinois forest preserve (USA). Natural Areas Journal. 20(2): 189-196. [73892]
  • 9. Bieri, Robert; Anliot, Sture F. 1965. The structure and floristic composition of a virgin hemlock forest in West Virginia. Castanea. 30(4): 205-226. [73955]
  • 90. Small, Christine J.; McCarthy, Brian C. 2001. Vascular flora of the Waterloo Wildlife Research Station, Athens County, Ohio. Castanea. 66(4): 363-382. [71703]
  • 92. Stalter, Richard; Lamont, Eric E. 1997. Flora of North Carolina's Outer Banks, Ocracoke Island to Virginia. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 124(1): 71-88. [73954]
  • 93. Stalter, Richard; Lynch, Patrick; Schaberl, James. 1993. Vascular flora of Saratoga National Historical Park, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 120(2): 166-176. [73969]
  • 94. Steury, Brent W; Davis, Charles A. 2003. The vascular flora of Piscataway and Fort Washington National Parks, Prince Georges and Charles Counties, Maryland. Castanea. 68(4): 271-299. [73054]
  • 97. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 99. Taylor, W. Carl. 1976. Vascular flora of Jonca Creek, Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri. Castanea. 41(2): 93-118. [73984]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat & Distribution

Jiangsu [introduced from Europe]
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Lesser Periwinkle occurs occasionally in the wild throughout Illinois, except in the NW counties, where it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into the United States from the Mediterranean area of Europe as a horticultural plant. Habitats include deciduous woodlands, woodland borders, rocky bluffs or banks, cemeteries, sites of abandoned homesteads, city parks where woody vegetation occurs, and semi-shaded areas along roads. Lesser Periwinkle is commonly planted as a ground cover around shrubbery and along the foundations of buildings in both residential and commercial areas. This plant can smother the native spring wildflowers in deciduous woodlands, covering large areas of the ground. Fortunately, it rarely produces seed and therefore doesn't spread across long distances to the same extent as some other invasive plants. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 1.0 of 5

Associations

Foodplant / spot causer
few, mostly central, mostly epiphyllous, immersed, black pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta vincae causes spots on live leaf of Vinca minor
Remarks: season: 3-5

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
amphigenous, scattered, immersed, then erumpent, dimorphic conidioma of Ceuthospora coelomycetous anamorph of Ceuthospora feurichii feeds on moribund leaf of Vinca minor
Remarks: season: 2-6

Foodplant / saprobe
amphigenous, scattered, abundant pycnidium of Macrophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Macrophoma vincae is saprobic on dead leaf of Vinca minor
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Phacidium vincae is saprobic on dead Vinca minor

Foodplant / saprobe
linear, in rows,covered then erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis lirella is saprobic on dead, dry stem of Vinca minor

Foodplant / parasite
Puccinia vincae parasitises live sterile, unnaturally erect of stem of Vinca minor
Other: unusual host/prey

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Fuels and Fire Regimes

More info for the terms: cover, fire exclusion, fire intensity, fire regime, fuel, hardwood, litter, presence, tree

Fuels: As of this writing (2009), there was no information available regarding the flammability of periwinkles. Some evidence suggests that periwinkles may alter local fuel characteristics by changing community structure, litter dynamics, fuel arrangement, and understory temperatures. In Michigan, understory structure in a mixed-hardwood dune successional forest was changed when mats of common periwinkle replaced canopy tree seedlings and herbaceous understory plants [17]. Common periwinkle also greatly reduced the overall accumulation of leaf litter in this area (Bultman personal observation cited in [17]). In mature oak-hickory forest in southwestern Illinois, common periwinkle in the understory led to an increase in the amount of vegetated surface area [88]. Near Sydney, Australia, areas dominated by bigleaf periwinkle had significantly cooler temperatures than sites with little bigleaf periwinkle cover (P<0.01) [31]. The impact of these altered fuel characteristics likely varies based on departure from historical conditions and the dynamics of local FIRE REGIMES.

FIRE REGIMES: It is not known what type of fire regime periwinkles are best adapted to. In North America, periwinkles are found in plant communities that historically experienced long (e.g., northern hardwood, southern floodplain forests) and short (e.g., Appalachian oak-hickory-pine forests) fire-return intervals (see the Fire Regime Table). In many areas where periwinkles occur, historical FIRE REGIMES have been dramatically altered due to fire exclusion and massive disturbances associated with human settlement.

It is unclear how the presence of periwinkles may affect FIRE REGIMES in invaded communities. In ecosystems where periwinkles replace plants with similar fuel characteristics, they may alter fire intensity or slightly modify an existing fire regime. If periwinkle spread introduces novel fuel properties to the invaded ecosystem, fire behavior, and potentially fire regime, may be altered (see these citations: [14,26]). This topic warrants additional study.

See the Fire Regime Table for further information on FIRE REGIMES of vegetation communities in which periwinkles may occur.

  • 14. Brooks, Matthew L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Richardson, David M.; Grace, James B.; Keeley, Jon E.; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Pellant, Mike; Pyke, David. 2004. Effects of invasive alien plants on FIRE REGIMES. BioScience. 54(7): 677-688. [50224]
  • 17. Bultman, Thomas L.; DeWitt, David J. 2008. Effect of an invasive ground cover plant on the abundance and diversity of a forest floor spider assemblage. Biological Invasions. 10: 749-756. [72432]
  • 26. D'Antonio, Carla M. 2000. Fire, plant invasions, and global changes. In: Mooney, Harold A.; Hobbs, Richard J., eds. Invasive species in a changing world. Washington, DC: Island Press: 65-93. [37679]
  • 31. Downes, Sharon; Hoefer, Anke-Maria. 2007. An experimental study of the effects of weed invasion on lizard phenotypes. Oecologia. 153(3): 775-785. [73877]
  • 88. Schulz Kurt; Thelen, Carol. 2000. Impact and control of Vinca minor L. in an Illinois forest preserve (USA). Natural Areas Journal. 20(2): 189-196. [73892]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Vegetative regeneration

Vegetative regeneration is very important to the establishment and spread of both bigleaf ([74,113], reviews by [81,111]) and common ([66,88], review by [81]) periwinkles. Bigleaf periwinkle spreads with "great rapidity" by arching stolons, which root at the tips (review by [7]). Periwinkles form mats and extensive infestations even under forest canopies ([32], review by [72]). Given their ability to spread with the dumping of yard waste ([17,37], review by [10]), it is likely that periwinkles establish from plant fragments.

Bigleaf periwinkle grows in patches around the bases of trees or spreads up and down drainages through vegetative spread (review by [7]). In Belgium, common periwinkle distribution was not significantly clumped within forest patches despite its inability to disperse long distances (P>0.05) [56]. See Impacts for more information about vegetative rate of spread in periwinkles.

 

Stolons and roots of common periwinkle.

  • 10. Bossard, Carla C.; Randall, John M.; Hoshovsky, Marc C., eds. 2000. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 360 p. [38054]
  • 111. Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. 548 p. [71904]
  • 113. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 17. Bultman, Thomas L.; DeWitt, David J. 2008. Effect of an invasive ground cover plant on the abundance and diversity of a forest floor spider assemblage. Biological Invasions. 10: 749-756. [72432]
  • 32. Drake, Sara J.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Parr, Patricia D. 2003. Assessment of non-native invasive plant species on the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Castanea. 68(1): 15-30. [49846]
  • 37. Fleming, Peggy; Kanal, Raclare. 1995. Annotated list of vascular plants of Rock Creek Park, National Park Service, Washington, DC. Castanea. 60(4): 283-316. [71991]
  • 56. Jacquemyn, Hans; Butaye, Jan; Hermy, Martin. 2001. Forest plant species richness in small, fragmented mixed deciduous forest patches: the role of area, time and dispersal limitation. Journal of Biogeography. 28(6): 801-812. [73982]
  • 66. Landon, Amelia L.; Banko, Thomas J. 2005. Propagation of Vinca minor by single-node cuttings. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 23(1): 1-3. [73884]
  • 7. Bean, Catlin; Russo, Mary J. 2005. Element stewardship abstract: Vinca major, Vinca minor--periwinkle, [Online]. In: Management library: Control methods--plants. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST). Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/vincmaj.pdf [2009, July 13]. [73947]
  • 72. Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 93 p. Available online: http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/gtr/gtr_srs062/ [2004, December 10]. [50788]
  • 74. Native Plant Society of Oregon, Emerald Chapter. 2008. Exotic gardening and landscaping plants invasive in native habitats of the southern Willamette Valley, [Online]. In: Invasive plants--Invasive exotic plants list 2008. Native Plant Society of Oregon (Producer). Available: http://www.emeraldnpso.org/PDFs/Invas_Orn.pdf [2009, June 24]. [74811]
  • 81. Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. 1996. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 111 p. [43868]
  • 88. Schulz Kurt; Thelen, Carol. 2000. Impact and control of Vinca minor L. in an Illinois forest preserve (USA). Natural Areas Journal. 20(2): 189-196. [73892]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: breeding system

Most periwinkle reproduction occurs through vegetative spread. Seeds are rarely produced [7,45,113], and seedlings are rarely observed in the field ([21], review by [7]).

  • 113. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 21. Chess, Katie. 2005. Vinca seen propagating by seed again (California, USA), [Online]. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST) listserve digest #139: Posting #10--September 2005. The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/listarch/arch139.html#01 [2009, July 7]. [73949]
  • 45. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 7. Bean, Catlin; Russo, Mary J. 2005. Element stewardship abstract: Vinca major, Vinca minor--periwinkle, [Online]. In: Management library: Control methods--plants. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST). Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/vincmaj.pdf [2009, July 13]. [73947]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: chamaephyte, hemicryptophyte

Raunkiaer [82] life form:
Chamaephyte
Hemicryptophyte
  • 82. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the terms: forb, vine

Vine-forb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seed banking

There is limited information on seed banking in periwinkles. Though bigleaf periwinkle was the most abundant species in riparian areas in the Huachuca Mountains of Arizona, it was a minor component of the soil seed bank. Perennial, herbaceous native species dominated soil seed bank samples [83].
  • 83. Richter, Rebecca; Stromberg, Juliet C. 2005. Soil seed banks of two montane riparian areas: implications for restoration. Biodiversity and Conservation. 14(4): 993-1016. [60044]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seed dispersal

No information is available on the dispersal of bigleaf periwinkle seeds. Common periwinkle seeds are dispersed by ants in its native range [54,56]. Some authors suggest that common periwinkle has no active dispersal mechanism [44]. One review states that common periwinkle does not spread to new areas by seed in its nonnative range [81].
  • 44. Grashof-Bokdam, C. J.; Geertsema, W. 1998. The effect of isolation and history on colonization patterns of plant species in secondary woodland. Journal of Biogeography. 25(5): 837-846. [73922]
  • 54. Honnay, Olivier; Hermy, Martin; Coppin, Pol. 1999. Impact of habitat quality on forest plant species colonization. Forest Ecology and Management. 115(2-3): 157-170. [73894]
  • 56. Jacquemyn, Hans; Butaye, Jan; Hermy, Martin. 2001. Forest plant species richness in small, fragmented mixed deciduous forest patches: the role of area, time and dispersal limitation. Journal of Biogeography. 28(6): 801-812. [73982]
  • 81. Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. 1996. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 111 p. [43868]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seedling establishment and plant growth

Documentation of periwinkle establishment by seed is rare. Bigleaf periwinkle seedlings were found in riparian areas in California [21], though seedlings are rarely found in the field (review by [7]). Documentation of common periwinkle seedlings was not found in the literature as of 2009.

Limitations to periwinkle growth have been infrequently documented. Bigleaf periwinkle growth is limited by dry or cold temperatures, and hot, dry weather may cause death (review by [7]). Bigleaf periwinkle was limited to shady areas of a riparian canyon bottom at the Ramsey Canyon Preserve (Gebow 2009 personal communication [41]).

  • 21. Chess, Katie. 2005. Vinca seen propagating by seed again (California, USA), [Online]. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST) listserve digest #139: Posting #10--September 2005. The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/listarch/arch139.html#01 [2009, July 7]. [73949]
  • 41. Gebow, Brooke S. 2009. [Email to Katharine Stone]. June 10. Regarding Vinca major at Ramsey Canyon Preserve. Hereford, AZ: The Nature Conservancy, Southeastern Arizona Preserves. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; FEIS files. [74731]
  • 7. Bean, Catlin; Russo, Mary J. 2005. Element stewardship abstract: Vinca major, Vinca minor--periwinkle, [Online]. In: Management library: Control methods--plants. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST). Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/vincmaj.pdf [2009, July 13]. [73947]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Germination

As of 2003, periwinkle seed viability in the field was unknown (review by [72]). In laboratory studies, common periwinkle seeds exhibited an "extended dormancy period"; 70% germination occurred after 30 days using a combination of acid scarification and 90-day cold stratification. No germination occurred after 30-day stratification-scarification treatment or scarification treatment alone [110].
  • 110. Vitti, John D.; Parker, Ronald D. 1985. Seed germination in Vinca minor L. HortScience. 20(2): 186. [73944]
  • 72. Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 93 p. Available online: http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/gtr/gtr_srs062/ [2004, December 10]. [50788]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Seed production

One review states that bigleaf periwinkle does not reproduce by seed in the wild in California [7], though occasional seedlings have been found [21]. Common periwinkle rarely produces seeds [45,113].
  • 113. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 21. Chess, Katie. 2005. Vinca seen propagating by seed again (California, USA), [Online]. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST) listserve digest #139: Posting #10--September 2005. The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/listarch/arch139.html#01 [2009, July 7]. [73949]
  • 45. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 7. Bean, Catlin; Russo, Mary J. 2005. Element stewardship abstract: Vinca major, Vinca minor--periwinkle, [Online]. In: Management library: Control methods--plants. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST). Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/vincmaj.pdf [2009, July 13]. [73947]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Pollination and breeding system

Periwinkles are cross-pollinating plants [38].
  • 38. Fryxell, Paul A. 1957. Mode of reproduction of higher plants. Botanical Review. 23: 135-233. [67749]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Bigleaf periwinkle generally flowers from March to June [4,29,42,78] but may bloom year-round in north-central Texas [29]. In the Carolinas bigleaf periwinkle produces fruit in June and July [78].

Common periwinkle generally flowers from between March and June depending on location [4,29,42,45,50,78,97]. In Georgia, most common periwinkle flowering occurs in early March, though flowering was observed as early as 28 February [40]. Common periwinkle fruits are produced from May to July in the southeastern United States ([78], review by [72]).

  • 29. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 4. Andreas, Barbara K.; Cooperrider, Tom S. 1979. The Apocynaceae of Ohio. Castanea. 44(4): 238-241. [55119]
  • 40. Funderbuck, David O.; Skeen, James N. 1976. Spring phenology in a mature Peidmont forest. Castanea. 41(1): 20-30. [71755]
  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 45. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 50. Hill, Steven R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea. 51(4): 265-305. [73995]
  • 72. Miller, James H. 2003. Nonnative invasive plants of southern forests: A field guide for identification and control. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-62. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 93 p. Available online: http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/gtr/gtr_srs062/ [2004, December 10]. [50788]
  • 78. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 97. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vinca minor

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vinca minor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Pests and potential problems

Common periwinkle can be affected by blight, canker, leaf spot, and root rot.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Prevention and Control

Periwinkle can be pulled by hand, dug up or raked up, being sure to remove underground portions. Where appropriate, mowing can be used to cut plants back but will likely have to be repeated regularly. Mowing followed soon after by application of a systemic herbicide would improve control greatly.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

‘Alba’, ‘Atropurpurea’, ‘Bowles’, ‘Variegata’, ‘Multiplex.’ Seedlings are available at most commercial nurseries.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Control

Please contact your local agricultural extension specialist or county weed specialist to learn what works best in your area and how to use it safely. Always read label and safety instructions for each control method. Trade names and control measures appear in this document only to provide specific information. USDA, NRCS does not guarantee or warranty the products and control methods named, and other products may be equally effective.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Little or no maintenance is required after establishment. Well-established plantings may be clipped to promote new growth. Chemical or mechanical weeding may be need to control unwanted vegetation.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Other uses and values

Periwinkles are popular ornamental groundcovers [10,37,68]. Their establishment in North America is largely due to their escape from cultivation [29,42,50,51,55,92,97,100,103,107]. Common periwinkle is easily propagated by cuttings [66]. Common periwinkle was planted for erosion control near Washington, DC [37]. Periwinkles are valued medicinal herbs (reviews by [7,81]), and common periwinkle is considered an aphrodisiac (review by [81]).
  • 10. Bossard, Carla C.; Randall, John M.; Hoshovsky, Marc C., eds. 2000. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 360 p. [38054]
  • 100. Thorne, Robert F. 1954. The vascular plants of southwestern Georgia. The American Midland Naturalist. 52(2): 257-327. [73998]
  • 103. Tucker, G. E. 1972. The vascular flora of Bluff Mountain, Ashe County, North Carolina. Castanea. 37(1): 2-26. [73963]
  • 107. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Federal Register 50 CFR Part 17: RIN 1018-AD35. Rules and regulations: Final rule. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Determination of threatened status for one plant, Arctostaphylos pallida (pallid manzanita), from the northern Diablo Range of California. Federal Register: 1998, April 22. 63(77): 19842-19850. [73951]
  • 29. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 37. Fleming, Peggy; Kanal, Raclare. 1995. Annotated list of vascular plants of Rock Creek Park, National Park Service, Washington, DC. Castanea. 60(4): 283-316. [71991]
  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 50. Hill, Steven R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea. 51(4): 265-305. [73995]
  • 51. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 55. Hyatt, Philip E. 1993. A survey of the vascular flora of Baxter County, Arkansas. Castanea. 58(2): 115-140. [73974]
  • 66. Landon, Amelia L.; Banko, Thomas J. 2005. Propagation of Vinca minor by single-node cuttings. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 23(1): 1-3. [73884]
  • 68. Lorenz, David G.; Sharp, W. Curtis.; Ruffner, Joseph D. 1991. Conservation plants for the Northeast. Program Aid 1154. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 43 p. [47719]
  • 7. Bean, Catlin; Russo, Mary J. 2005. Element stewardship abstract: Vinca major, Vinca minor--periwinkle, [Online]. In: Management library: Control methods--plants. In: Global Invasive Species Team (GIST). Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/vincmaj.pdf [2009, July 13]. [73947]
  • 81. Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. 1996. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 111 p. [43868]
  • 92. Stalter, Richard; Lamont, Eric E. 1997. Flora of North Carolina's Outer Banks, Ocracoke Island to Virginia. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 124(1): 71-88. [73954]
  • 97. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Palatability and/or nutritional value: Periwinkles are generally unpalatable and have little nutritional value. Bigleaf periwinkle is listed as poisonous in South Africa [16]. Common periwinkle was an infrequent food item of the volcano rabbit in Mexico [20] and white-tailed deer in Indiana [91]. Caged Canada geese would not feed on common periwinkle, even when it was the only forage available [23].

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

  • 16. Bullock, A. A. 1952. South African poisonous plants. Kew Bulletin. 7(1): 117-129. [73927]
  • 20. Cervantes, Fernando A.; Martinez, Jesus. 1992. Food habits of the rabbit Romerolagus diazi (Leporidae) in central Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy. 73(4): 830-834. [73932]
  • 23. Conover, Michael R. 1991. Herbivory by Canada geese: diet selection and effect on lawns. Ecological Applications. 1(2): 231-236. [73920]
  • 91. Sotala, Dennis J.; Kirkpatrick, Charles M. 1973. Foods of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Martin County, Indiana. The American Midland Naturalist. 89(2): 281-286. [15056]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Erosion control: Its use should normally be restricted to partially shaded areas and north or east exposures on ramps and inclines. It should be considered on roadsides in specially adapted locations and sites.

Ornamental and beautification: Common periwinkle is particularly desirable as an attractive evergreen ground cover in mild climates. It is valuable on yards, banks, or odd areas as a low maintenance ground cover. It tolerates light traffic but should not be used where frequent trampling occurs.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Periwinkle grows vigorously and forms dense and extensive mats along the forest floor, displacing native herbaceous and woody plant species.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Vinca minor

Vinca minor (common names lesser periwinkle or dwarf periwinkle) is a species of flowering plant native to central and southern Europe, from Portugal and France north to the Netherlands and the Baltic States, east to the Caucasus, and also southwestern Asia in Turkey. Other vernacular names used in cultivation include small periwinkle, common periwinkle, and sometimes in the United States, myrtle or creeping myrtle,[1] although this is misleading, as the name myrtle normally refers to the Myrtus species.

Leaf margins for comparison; Vinca minor above, Vinca major below; note hairless margin of V. minor, hairy margin of V. major. Scale in mm.

Description[edit]

Vinca minor is a trailing, viny subshrub, spreading along the ground and rooting along the stems to form large clonal colonies and occasionally scrambling up to 40 centimetres (16 in) high but never twining or climbing. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, 2–4.5 centimetres (0.79–1.77 in) long and 1–2.5 centimetres (0.39–0.98 in) broad, glossy dark green with a leathery texture and an entire margin.

The flowers are solitary in the leaf axils and are produced mainly from early spring to mid summer but with a few flowers still produced into the autumn; they are violet-purple (pale purple or white in some cultivated selections), 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.18 in) diameter, with a five-lobed corolla. The fruit is a pair of follicles 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) long, containing numerous seeds.

The closely related species Vinca major is similar, but larger in all parts, and also has relatively broader leaves with a hairy margin.

Cultivation[edit]

Ground cover with dense growth

The species is commonly grown as a groundcover in temperate gardens for its evergreen foliage, spring and summer flowers, ease of culture, and dense habit that smothers most weeds. The species has few pests or diseases outside its native range and is widely naturalised and classified as an invasive species in parts of North America. Invasion can be restricted by removal of rooting stems in spring.[2] Once established, it is difficult to eradicate, as its waxy leaves shed most water-based herbicide sprays. Removal involves cutting, followed by immediate application of concentrated glyphosphate or triclopyr to the cut stems. Repeated chemical treatments may be necessary, along with digging up the roots where feasible.[3]

Cultivars[edit]

There are numerous cultivars, with different flower colours and variegated foliage. Many have a less vigorous habit than the species, and are therefore more suitable for smaller gardens. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • 'Argenteovariegata'[4] (leaves have creamy white margins)
  • 'Atropurpurea'[5] (purple flowers)
  • 'Azurea Flore Pleno'[6] (double blue flowers)
  • 'La Grave'[7] (violet flowers)

Chemical constituents[edit]

Vinca minor contains more than 50 alkaloids,[8] and vincamine is the molecule responsible for Vinca's nootropic activity.[citation needed] Other alkaloids include reserpine, reserpinine, akuammicine, majdine, vinerine, ervine, vineridine, tombozine, vincamajine, vincanine, vincanidine,[9] vincamone, apovincamine, vincaminol, desoxyvincaminol,[10] vincorine[11] and perivincine.[12]

Vinpocetine (brand names: Cavinton, Intelectol; chemical name: ethyl apovincaminate) is a semisynthetic derivative alkaloid of vincamine.

Color[edit]

The color name periwinkle is derived from the flower.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Foster, Rachel. "So Many Myrtles — Unraveling the confusion and contradiction". Retrieved August 19, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Vinca minor L. Common periwinkle". USDA. Plants Profile. Retrieved August 26, 2006. 
  3. ^ "Vines". NPS. November 11, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Vinca minor Argenteovariegata". RHS. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Vinca minor Atropurpurea". RHS. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Vinca minor Azurea Flore Pleno". RHS. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Vinca minor La Grave". RHS. Retrieved June 29, 2013. 
  8. ^ Khanavi, M.; Pourmoslemi, S.; Farahanikia, B.; Hadjiakhoondi, A.; Ostad, S. N. (2010). "Cytotoxicity ofVinca minor". Pharmaceutical Biology 48 (1): 96–100. doi:10.3109/13880200903046187. PMID 20645762.  edit
  9. ^ Tulyaganov, T. S.; Nigmatullaev, A. M. (2000). Chemistry of Natural Compounds 36 (5): 540. doi:10.1023/A:1002820414086.  edit
  10. ^ Smeyers, Y. G.; Smeyers, N. J.; Randez, J. J.; Hernandez-Laguna, A.; Galvez-Ruano, E. (1991). "A structural and pharmacological study of alkaloids of Vinca Minor". Molecular Engineering 1 (2): 153. doi:10.1007/BF00420051.  edit
  11. ^ Yasui, Y.; Kinugawa, T.; Takemoto, Y. (2009). "Synthetic studies on vincorine: Access to the 3a,8a-dialkyl-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo\2,3-b]indole skeleton". Chemical Communications (28): 4275. doi:10.1039/b907210a.  edit
  12. ^ Farnsworth, N. R.; Draus, F. J.; Sager, R. W.; Bianculli, J. A. (2006). "Studies on Vinca major L. (Apocynaceae) I. Isolation of perivincine". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 49 (9): 589. doi:10.1002/jps.3030490908.  edit

Further reading[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The genus name for periwinkles is Vinca L. (Apocynaceae). This review summarizes information on the following periwinkle species [29,42,61,78,113]:

Vinca major L., bigleaf periwinkle

Vinca minor L., common periwinkle
In this review, species are referred to by their common names, and "periwinkles" refers to both species.
Numerous periwinkle cultivars are available [30,66].
  • 113. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 29. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 30. Dirr, Michael A. 1998. Manual of woody landscape plants: Their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation and uses. 5th ed. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing. 1187 p. [74836]
  • 42. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 61. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
  • 66. Landon, Amelia L.; Banko, Thomas J. 2005. Propagation of Vinca minor by single-node cuttings. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 23(1): 1-3. [73884]
  • 78. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Common Names

bigleaf periwinkle

big periwinkle

greater periwinkle

large periwinkle

periwinkle

vinca

common periwinkle

lesser periwinkle

periwinkle

vinca

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!