Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This non-showy plant is unlikely to receive favor from the mass market in horticulture, but it is nonetheless quite interesting to examine. This milkweed species is rather variable across different localities; there is a variety with narrow leaves that occurs in sandy areas near Lake Michigan. Short Green Milkweed (Asclepias viridiflora) can be distinguished from many species of milkweeds by its nodding umbels of greenish flowers. The rare Mead's Milkweed (Asclepias meadii) has this characteristic, but its flowers are more wide (about 6 mm. across) and the hoods of its flowers have horns. Another milkweed species, Tall Green Milkweed (Asclepias hirtella), produces nodding umbels of greenish flowers, but its umbels are more fully globoid in shape, and its leaves are usually more linear and narrow than those of Short Green Milkweed.
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Description

This perennial plant is 1½–2' tall and unbranched. The central stem is light green to light purplish green and more or less pubescent. Several pairs of opposite leaves occur along the entire length of the stem; they are more or less ascending. The leaves are often folded upward along their margins, where they are often wavy (up and down). Individual leaves are up to 5" long and 1½" across; they are linear-lanceolate to lanceolate in shape and smooth (entire) along their margins. The upper leaf surface is medium green, while the lower leaf surface is light green; both surfaces are short-pubescent to nearly glabrous. The petioles are about 3 mm. (1/8") long, light green to light reddish green, and pubescent. The primary veins of the leaves are pinnate, while their secondary veins form a reticulated network that is visible on their undersides. From the axils of middle to upper leaves, there are nodding umbels of flowers spanning 1–1¾" across (only one umbel per pair of leaves). These umbels have short pubescent peduncles up to 6 mm. (¼") long. A typical plant will have 1-4 umbels; each umbel has 15-45 flowers on hairy pedicels about ½" long. Individual umbels are broadly obconic to half-globoid in shape and dome-shaped in front, rather than flat-headed. Each flower is about 8 mm. long and 3 mm. across, consisting of 5 erect hoods, 5 deflexed petals, 5 deflexed sepals, and the reproductive organs. The flowers are light green to green, becoming yellowish green or purplish green as they age. Individual hoods are lanceolate-oblong in shape; they are without horns. The hoods surround a central reproductive column on all sides; this column contains masses of winged pollinia (packets of pollen). The deflexed petals are lanceolate in shape; when the flower is fully open, they hide the shorter sepals. The sepals are linear-lanceolate in shape, light green to purplish green, and hairy. The blooming period occurs during early summer, lasting about 3 weeks. Afterwards, the flowers that have been cross-pollinated successfully (if any) are replaced by follicles (seedpods that open along one side). The follicles are up to 3½–5" long and ½–¾" across; they are narrowly lanceoloid and usually short-pubescent. During the autumn, these follicles split open to release their seeds. The seeds are dark brown, flattened-ovoid in shape, and winged along their margins. At their apices, the seeds have tufts of white hair; they are distributed by the wind. The root system consists of a central taproot. This plant usually occurs as scattered individuals, rarely forming colonies. Cultivation
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Short Green Milkweed is widely distributed in Illinois, but it is absent from some eastern and central counties (see Distribution Map). In areas where it occurs, this plant is rare to occasional. Habitats include openings in upland forests that are rocky or sandy; upland black soil prairies, sand prairies, gravel prairies, and hill prairies; barrens, limestone glades, and sand dunes; and abandoned fields. Short Green Milkweed usually occurs in high quality habitats, rather than degraded areas. Occasional wildfires are probably beneficial by reducing competition from woody vegetation. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: A milkweed known from Connecticut and southern New York, west to Michigan and Manitoba, and south to Georgia, Arizona and northern Mexico. It is more common in the western portions of the range.

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Short Green Milkweed is widely distributed in Illinois, but it is absent from some eastern and central counties (see Distribution Map). In areas where it occurs, this plant is rare to occasional. Habitats include openings in upland forests that are rocky or sandy; upland black soil prairies, sand prairies, gravel prairies, and hill prairies; barrens, limestone glades, and sand dunes; and abandoned fields. Short Green Milkweed usually occurs in high quality habitats, rather than degraded areas. Occasional wildfires are probably beneficial by reducing competition from woody vegetation. Faunal Associations
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Short Green Milkweed in Illinois

Asclepias viridiflora (Short Green Milkweed)
(Insects suck nectar; pollinia presence is unspecified; one observation is from Betz as indicated below, otherwise the observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus fraternus, Bombus griseocallis fq (Rb, Btz); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Anthedonia compta

Wasps
Sphecidae (Larrinae): Tachytes aurulenta; Vespidae (Eumenidae): Euodynerus annulatus np

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Asclepias viridiflora

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: A common species in the western parts of its range.

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Wikipedia

Asclepias viridiflora

Asclepias viridiflora, called the "green milkweed," is a widely distributed species of milkweed known from much of the eastern and central United States from Connecticut to Georgia to Arizona to Montana, as well as southern Canada.

Asclepias viridiflora is an erect to ascending herb up to 50 cm tall, with distinctive greenish-white flowers. The pods lack the warts and tubercules common on other species of Asclepias.[2][3][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Plant List
  2. ^ Sundell, E. 1993. Asclepiadaceae, Milkweed Family. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 27:169-187.
  3. ^ University of Texas at Austin Native Plant Database, Asclepias viridiflora
  4. ^ Rafinesque. C.S. Medical Repository, ser. 2, 5: 360. 1808.
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