Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Annual herb, mostly erect, up to 1.5 m. Leaves glabrous or with sparse hairs on the main veins below, long petiolate, up to 9 cm. The leaf axils bear pairs of fine and slender spines. Flowers green in axillary clusters and branched terminal spikes. Male flowers in the apical part of the spikes.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Derivation of specific name

spinosus: spiny
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: 0-1000 m, 1000-2000 m elevation.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

"
Global Distribution

Originally from America; now found throughout the warmer regions of the world

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Found in wastelands and cultivable lands from plains to 1500m. Common. Cosmopolitan.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Nile Valley north of Nubia (Cairo).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Distribution

American origin.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

introduced; Man., Ont.; Ala., Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; introduced nearly worldwide.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Worldwide distribution

Throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world; also sporadic in warm temperate areas
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Of presumed American origin, now a cosmopolitan weed in the warmer regions of the world and also occurring as a casual in some temperate regions; in Pakistan as elsewhere it occurs as a weed of cultivation, roadsides, waste places etc., ascending to at least 1210 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cosmopolitan warm temperate and tropical weed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In axillary or aggregated terminal panicles; greenish-white. Flowering from December-April.

Fruit

An orbicular urticle, compressed. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Stem reddish. Spines axillary, paired or clustered.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Elliptic-obovate to rhomboid

Leaf Apex

Acutely emarginate

Leaf Base

Acute

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Annual herb, erect or slightly decumbent, simple or much-branched and bushy, up to 1.5 m in height. Stem stout, sometimes reddish, usually branched, angular, glabrous or increasingly furnished above (especially in the inflore¬scence) with long, multicellular, flocculent hairs. Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the lower surface of the primary nervation, long-petiolate (petioles up to c. 9 cm, sometimes longer than the lamina), the lamina ovate to rhomboid-ovate, elliptic, lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate, c. 1.5-12 x 0.8-6 cm, subacute or more commonly blunt or retuse at the tip with a distinct, fine, colourless mucro, cuneate or attenuate at the base; each leaf-axil bearing a pair of fine and slender to stout and compressed spines up to c. 2.5 cm long. Flowers green, in the lower part of the plant in axillary clusters 6-15 mm in diameter; towards the ends of the stem and branches the clusters are leafless and approximated to form simple or sometimes (especially the terminal) branched spikes usually up to c. 15 cm long and 1 cm wide. Lower clusters entirely female, as are the lower flowers of the spikes; upper flowers of the spikes male, mostly for the apical 1/4-2/3 of each spike. Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate, pale-membranous, with an erect, pale or reddish awn formed by the excurrent green midrib; bracteoles shorter than, subequalling or little exceeding the perianth, commonly smaller than the bracts. Perianth segments 5, those of the female flowers c. 1.5-2.5 mm, narrowly oblong or spathulate-oblong, obtuse or acute, mucronulate, frequently with a greenish dorsal vitta; those of the male flowers broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, acute or acuminate, only the midrib green. Stigmas (2-) 3, flexuose or reflexed, 1-1.5 mm. Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short inflated neck below the style base, c. 1.5 mm, regularly or irregularly circumscissile or rarely indehiscent, the lid rugulose below the neck. Seed 0.75-1 mm, compressed, black, shining, very faintly reticulate.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Elevation Range

150-1200 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Stem erect, green or somewhat tinged purple, 30-100 cm tall, terete or obtusely angulate, much branched, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Petiole 1-8 cm, glabrous, 2-armed at base; leaf blade ovate-rhombic or ovate-lanceolate, 3-12 × 1-6 cm, glabrous or slightly pubescent along veins when young, base cuneate, margin entire, apex obtuse, with a mucro. Complex thyrsoid structures terminal or axillary, 8-25 cm; terminal spike usually with all male flowers at or toward apex. Bracts becoming very sharply spiny in proximal part of spike. Tepals green, transparent at margin and with green or purple median band, apex acute, with a mucro; male flowers oblong, 2-2.5 mm; female flowers oblong-spatulate, ca. 1.5 mm. Filaments nearly as long as or slightly shorter than perianth. Stigmas 3(or 2). Utricles included in perianth, oblong, 1-1.2 mm, circumscissile slightly below middle. Seeds brownish black, subglobose, ca. 1 mm in diam. Fl. and fr. Jul-Nov. 2n = 34, 68.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Plants glabrous or sparsely pubescent in the distal younger parts of stems and branches. Stems erect or sometimes ascending proximally, much-branched and bushy, rarely nearly simple, 0.3-1(-2) m; each node with paired, divergent spines (modified bracts) to 1.5(-2.5) cm. Leaves: petiole ± equaling or longer than blade; blade rhombic-ovate, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, 3-10(-15) × 1.5-6 cm, base broadly cuneate, margins entire, plane or slightly undulate, apex acute or subobtuse to indistinctly emarginate, mucronulate. Inflorescences simple or compound terminal staminate spikes and axillary subglobose mostly pistillate clusters, erect or with reflexed or nodding tips, usually green to silvery green. Bracts of pistillate flowers lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, shorter than tepals, apex attenuate. Pistillate flowers: tepals 5, obovate-lanceolate or spatulate-lanceolate, equal or subequal, 1.2-2 mm, apex mucronate or short-aristate; styles erect or spreading; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers: often terminal or in proximal glomerules; tepals 5, equal or subequal, 1.7-2.5 mm; stamens 5. Utricles ovoid to subglobose, 1.5-2.5 mm, membranaceous proximally, wrinkled and spongy or inflated distally, irregularly dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds black, lenticular or subglobose-lenticular, 0.7-1 mm diam., smooth, shiny.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: An erect spinous herb, upto 90cm."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

"Erect glabrous herbs, profusely branched; branches grooved; spines divaricate, sharp, to 1.2 cm long. Leaves 3-8 x 2-4 cm, ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, base attenuate, apex obtuse or subacute; petiole to 4 cm long. Flowers in terminal panicled spikes or in axillary, sessile clusters. Bracts and bracteoles minute, ovate-lanceolate. Male flowers: 1-2 mm across; tepals 5, calycine, unequal, ovate-lanceolate; stamens 5; anthers sagittate. Female flowers: 1-2 mm across; tepals 5, oblong, acute at apex; ovary 1-celled; ovules solitary; stigmas 2-3. Utricle circumcissile. Seeds minute, discoid."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Abundant near village wastelands, as a weed of cultivation, colonizer on new roads. Plains from the coast to 1500m. Cosmopolitan in the warmer regions of the world, presumed of American origin, in temperate regions."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Habitat

Fallow lands and wastelands
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Weeds of cultivation, naturalized.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Waste places, fields, roadsides, railroads, barnyards, overgrazed pastures, other disturbed habitats; 0-700m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat & Distribution

Waste places, gardens. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [probably native to neotropics, now cosmopolitan in warm-temperate and tropical regions].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Spiny Pigweed in Illinois

Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny Pigweed) introduced
(Flowers are wind-pollinated; honeybees collect pollen; this observation is from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera cp fq

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Frequency

Frequent
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: June-December
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer-fall.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Annual.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amaranthus spinosus L.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amaranthus spinosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 32
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread species throughout Central America and world wide.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: Vegetable/potherb

Comments: This potherb possess a fair amount of protein and is rich in vitamins A and C, as well as in minerals. However, it also contains slight amounts of antinutritional factors, especially oxalates and nitrates.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Folklore

Indigenous Information: The leaves are cooked and eaten.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Leaves and tender stems are cooked and eaten. This spinach is believed to be excellent for people suffering from calcium deficiency.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Medicinal
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Amaranthus spinosus

Amaranthus spinosus, commonly known as the spiny amaranth, prickly amaranth or thorny amaranth. It is native to the tropical Americas, but it is present on most continents as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed. It can be a serious weed of rice cultivation in Asia. [1]

Uses[edit]

Dye use[edit]

In Cambodia, it is called pti banlar and its ash was historically used as a grey dye for cloth. It had many other uses also, including as food.

Food use[edit]

Phat phak khom is a Thai stir-fried dish of the young shoots of the Amaranthus spinosus. This version is stir-fried with egg and minced pork

Like several related species, Amaranthus spinosus is a valued food plant in Africa.[2] It is valued also in Thai cuisine, where it is called phak khom (Thai: ผักขม). In Tamil it is called mullik keerai. In Sanskrit it is called tanduliyaka. it is used as food in the Philippines where it is called kulitis. The leaves of this plant, known as massaagu in Dhivehi, have been used in the diet of the Maldives for centuries in dishes such as mas huni.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Caton, B. P.; M. Mortimer; J. E. Hill (2004). A practical field guide to weeds of rice in Asia. International Rice Research Institute. pp. 20–21. 
  2. ^ Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.
  3. ^ Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders, A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient Ocean Kingdom. Barcelona 1999, ISBN 84-7254-801-5
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. may yet be found in, or be introduced into, Pakistan. It much resembles Amaranthus spinosus but lacks the axillary spines and has a different habit; from robust Amaranthus viridis it differs in its circum¬scissile capsule, which is much less strongly wrinkled than that of Amaranthus viridis.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments

Amaranthus spinosus is native to lowlands in tropical America; at present it is a pantropical weed that also occurs in some warm-temperate regions. 

 Amaranthus spinosus, or its ancestral taxon, probably gave rise to the allopolyploid A. dubius by hybridization with some species of the A. hybridus aggregate (see above). Section Centrusa probably occupies a basal position, at least for the clade of subg. Amaranthus sect. Amaranthus, and probably for some representatives of subg. Acnida as currently outlined. Recent results of sequencing the ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 15 species of Amaranthus occurring in China also suggest the basal position of A. spinosus among the studied species (Song B. H. et al. 2000). These results also confirm a profound divergence between subgenera Amaranthus and Albersia; the latter is called "sect. Paucestamen" by the above authors. Data on the electrophoretic variation of seed proteins (R. H. Sammour et al. 1993) are also in accord with the segregation of these two subgenera; in the cited article, these groups are called sect. Amaranthus and sect. Blitopsis.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!