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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Mediterranean Region"
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Pune, Thane Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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introduced; Yukon; Alaska, Mass., N.J.; Europe.
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?Fujian, ?Guangxi, ?Guizhou, ?Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, ?Hubei, ?Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, ?Shandong, Shanxi, ?Taiwan, Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Myanmar, Russia (Far East, Siberia); Europe; introduced in North America].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants annual, rarely biennial [perennial], glabrous or very weakly short-papillose, mostly in inflorescence and on leaf blades, with fusiform, vertical rootstock. Stems erect (some dwarf alluvial forms may be ascending or almost prostrate), branched in distal 3, occasionally almost near base, (5-)15-75(-100) cm. Leaves: ocrea deciduous to partially persistent at maturity; blade lanceolate or lanceolate-linear, rarely oblong-lanceolate, usually very gradually narrowed at both ends, (4-)7-25(-40) × (1-)1.5-4(-5) cm, at least 4 times as long as wide, base narrowly cuneate, very rarely broadly cuneate, margins entire, flat or rarely weakly undulate, apex acute, very rarely subobtuse. Inflorescences terminal, occupying distal 1/ 2 of stem, occasionally most of stem, golden or greenish yellow, usually rather dense or interrupted in proximal part, broadly paniculate, branches spreading. Pedicels articulated near base or at least in proximal 1/ 3, filiform, 3-8 mm, articulation weakly evident. Flowers 15-30 (occasionally more) in rather dense whorls; inner tepals narrowly triangular or narrowly rhombic-triangular, 2.5-3(-3.5) × 0.75-1.2(-1.5) mm (excluding teeth), normally ca. 2 times as long as wide, base truncate or broadly cuneate, margins prominently dentate, apex acute, very rarely subacute, straight, teeth 2-3(-4), normally at each side of margins, subulate-filiform, bristlelike, 1-3.5 mm, usually 1.5-2 times as long as width of inner tepals; tubercles 3, equal or subequal, apex acute or subacute, smooth. Achenes light brown, small, 0.9-1.75 × 0.6-1 mm. 2n = 40.
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Description

Herbs annual, rarely biennial, especially in S regions. Stems erect, 15-60 cm tall, branched below middle, grooved, glabrous or weakly shortly papillose. Lower leaves: petiole 1-2.5 cm; leaf blade lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, 4-15(-20) × 1-3(-4) cm, both surfaces glabrous or shortly papillose below, base narrowly cuneate, margin entire and smooth, or occasionally slightly undulate, apex acute, cauline leaves shortly petiolate or nearly sessile, smaller than basal ones; ocrea fugacious, membranous. Inflorescence paniculate. Flowers bisexual. Pedicel filiform, articulate at base or slightly above base, articulation indistinctly swollen. Outer tepals elliptic, ca. 2 mm; inner tepals enlarged in fruit; valves narrowly triangular-ovate, 2.5-3.5 × 0.8-1.5 mm wide, all valves with tubercles, base truncate, each margin with 2 or 3(or 4) teeth, apex acute; teeth 2.5-3 mm, narrow; tubercles oblong, ca. 1.5 mm. Achenes yellow-brown, shiny, ellipsoid, sharply trigonous, 1.5-2 mm. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jun-Jul. 2n = 40.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Rumex longisetus A. Baranov & B. Skvortzov.
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Synonym

Lapathum minus Lamarck; Rumex aureus Miller
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Type Information

Isotype for Rumex maritimus var. athrix H. St. John
Catalog Number: US 259496
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. E. Jones
Year Collected: 1894
Locality: Vermilion., Utah, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 1646 to 1646
  • Isotype: St. John, H. 1915. Rhodora. 17: 79.
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Ecology

Habitat

Alluvial, riparian, and coastal habitats, mostly as a ruderal species; 0-500m.
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Field margins, riverbanks, streamsides; sea level to 1800 m.
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Associations

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Uromyces rumicis parasitises live Rumex maritimus

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer-early fall.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Rumex maritimus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rumex maritimus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rumex persicarioides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Rumex maritimus

Rumex maritimus (golden dock, bristle dock or seashore dock) is an annual plant species of the genus Rumex.

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Notes

Comments

This Eurasian species is known as a casual alien from several localities in North America. Its distribution is poorly known due to confusion with native American species of this aggregate. Plants from Alaska and Yukon reported by E. Hultén (1968) as Rumex maritimus need additional study; they may be conspecific with some eastern Asian races of the R. maritimus aggregate. It is rare or almost absent in eastern Asia, where it is replaced by closely related taxa.  

Species of the Rumex maritimus aggregate can be placed in a separate subsection Maritimi Rechinger f. (K. H. Rechinger 1937) or even section Orientales A. I. Baranov & B. V. Skvortzov (see A. E. Borodina 1977).

In addition to characters mentioned in the key and descriptions, additional distinctive features of Rumex maritimus are the smooth tubercles (occasionally finely striate or indistinctly pitted in herbarium specimens), and golden yellow or greenish yellow mature inflorescences.

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Comments

Rumex maritimus s.str. is native to Asia and Europe, but it is nearly absent from E Asia, where it is substituted by closely related and/or similar species. Previous records of R. maritimus from North America (except several localities of introduced plants) were also mainly based on misidentifications of related taxa (mostly R. persicarioides Linnaeus and R. fueginus Philippi). Because of that, earlier literature records of R. maritimus should be critically verified. Distribution patterns of R. maritimus and similar taxa (see below) in China need clarification.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz (1999) includes 'persicarioides' and 'fueginus' in R. martimus. The treatment here is broader than Flora North America vol. 5 which treat these entities as distinct species.

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