The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • 15. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 16. Hosner, John F. 1958. The effects of complete inundation upon seedlings of six bottomland tree species. Ecology. 39(2): 371-373. [115]
  • 17. Johnson, Carl M. 1970. Common native trees of Utah. Special Report 22. Logan, UT: Utah State University, College of Natural Resources, Agricultural Experiment Station. 109 p. [9785]
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  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 20. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
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  • 2007 - 2011. The International Plant Names Index (IPNI)
  • 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
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  • 24. Penfound, William T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. The Botanical Review. 18: 413-446. [11477]
  • 26. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees & shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 27. Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa State College Press. 371 p. [1913]
  • 28. Putnam, John A. 1951. Management of bottomland hardwoods. Occasional Paper 116. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 60 p. [6748]
  • 29. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]
  • 3. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 30. Shelford, V. E. 1954. Some lower Mississippi valley flood plain biotic communities; their age and elevation. Ecology. 35(2): 126-142. [4329]
  • 31. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 32. Thomson, Paul M.; Anderson, Roger C. 1976. An ecological investigation of the Oakwood Bottoms Greentree Reservoir in Illinois. In: Fralish, James S.; Weaver, George T.; Schlesinger, Richard C., eds. Central hardwood forest conference: Proceedings of a meeting; 1976 October 17-19; Carbondale, IL. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University: 45-64. [3812]
  • 34. Van Auken, O. W.; Bush, J. K. 1988. Dynamics of establishment, growth, and development of black willow and cottonwood in the San Antonio River Forest. Texas Journal of Science. 40(3): 269-277. [11138]
  • 35. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 36. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 37. Vora, Robin S. 1989. Fire in an old field adjacent to a sabal palm grove in south Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 41(1): 107-108. [7063]
  • 38. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 39. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [15400]
  • 4. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Salix L. willow. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 746-750. [5412]
  • 40. Walker, Laurence C. 1991. The southern forest: A chronicle. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 322 p. [17597]
  • 41. White, David A. 1989. Accreting mudflats at the Mississippi River Delta: sedimentation rates and vascular plant succession. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Biological Report. 89(22): 49-57. [17336]
  • 5. Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., tech. coords. 1990. Silvics of North America. Vol 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 877 p. [13955]
  • 6. Dionigi, Cristopher P.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Sullivan, Victoria I. 1985. Effects of soil waterlogging on the energy status and distribution of Salix nigra and S. exigua in the Atchafalaya River Basin of Louisiana. American Journal of Botany. 72(1): 109-119. [5889]
  • 7. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 8. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1103 External link.
  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1493 External link.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1327 External link.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 2010. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. 7: i–xxii, 1–797. In Fl. N. Amer. Oxford University Press, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1029486 External link.
  • García-Mendoza, A. J. & J. Meave del Castillo. 2011. Divers. Florist. Oaxaca 1–351. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100009052 External link.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/40417 External link.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Choripetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 2. 655 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1704 External link.
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 933 pp. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1711 External link.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/637 External link.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2013. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication. flowervisitors.info, version 06/2013.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication. illinoiswildflowers.info, version (03/2014) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Hultman, E. G. (1978). Trees, Shrubs and Flowers of the Midwest. 324. Chicago: Contemporary Books, Inc..
  • Image metadata at Bioimages (http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/)   http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/baskauf/00000 External link.
  • Kartesz, J. T., & Biota_of_North_America_Program (2009). USDA PLANTS Profile: Salix nigra Marsh., Black willow.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Peattie, D C. (1930). Flora of the Indiana dunes, a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the lake Michigan Coast of Indiana and of the Calumet District. 432 . Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/636 External link.
  • SPECIMEN BASED RECORD. Published protolog data.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/9990002 External link.
  • Salicaceae of North America Update
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978. Dicotyledoneae (Saururaceae to Violaceae). 3: 547–1115. In Fl. Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1682 External link.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1515 External link.
  • University_of_Michigan_(Dearborn_Herbarium) (2009). Native American Ethnobotany: Salix nigra.
  • University_of_Wisconsin_Stevens_Point_Freckmann_Herbarium (2009). Salix nigra: UW-Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium: Plant Details Page.
  • Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora. Part II Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. 59. xix + 724.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1700 External link.
  • Weeks, S. S., Harmon P. Weeks J.., & Parker G. R. (2005). Native Trees of the Midwest: Identification, Wildlife Values, and Landscaping Use. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainseville.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1009274 External link.
  •    
    1. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United  States and Canada. Society of American Foresters,  Washington, DC. 148 p.
    2.  
    3. Johnson, R. L., and J. S. McKnight. 1969. Benefits from  thinning black willow. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  SO-89. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.  6 p.
    4.  
    5. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States  trees (native and naturalized). U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 541. Washington, DC. 375  p.
    6.  
    7. McKnight, J. S. 1965. Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.). In  Silvics of forest trees of the United States. p. 650-652. H.  A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    8.  
    9. McLeod, K. W., and J. K. McPherson. 1972. Factors limiting  the distribution of Salix nigra. Bulletin of the Torrey  Botanical Club 100(2):102-110.
    10.  
    11. Randall, W. K. 1971. Willow clones differ in susceptibility  to cottonwood leaf beetle. In Proceedings, Eleventh Southern  Forest Tree Improvement Conference. Southern Forest Tree  Improvement Committee Sponsored Publication 33. p.  108-111. Eastern Tree Seed Laboratory, Macon, GA.
    12.  
    13. Sakai, A., and C. J. Wiser. 1973. Freezing resistance of  trees in North America with reference to tree regions.  Ecology 54(l):118-126.
    14.  
    15. Taylor, F. W. 1975. Wood property differences between two  stands of sycamore and black willow. Wood and Fiber  7(3):187-191.
    16.  
    17. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs and woody vines of the  Southwest. University of Texas Press Austin 1104 p.
    18.  
     

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