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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Nile and Mediterranean regions.

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Global Distribution

Atlantic Islands, Mediterranean region, southwest Asia, Ethiopia.

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Provincial distribution unknown [native to the Mediterranean region].
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Distribution: North and South America, North Africa, Europe, Asia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Glabrous, 1-2 m tall, branched; nodes swollen. Leaves pinnately to ternate¬ly dissected; segments filiform to linear. Peduncles 5-12 cm long. Involucre of divided bracts, deflexed; segments filiform. Umbel receptacle enlarged. Rays up to 50, contracted in fruit, stout. Involucel of linear bractlets. Calyx teeth minute. Fruit ovoid to oblong, 2 mm long.
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Description

Plants biennial, ca. 1 m. Basal leaves petiolate, petioles ca. 10 cm; blade pinnate; ultimate segments slender, linear, 20–30 × 0.5–1 mm, entire, divergent, apex setaceous. Upper leaves 2–3-pinnate. Umbels 6–10 cm across; peduncles elongate, 6–20 cm; bracts many, 1–2-pinnate, equaling or longer than rays; rays 60–100(–150), slender, 2–5 cm, unequal, spreading when young, in fruit becoming thick, rigid, erect and constricted on discoid torus (thickened base of rays); bracteoles numerous, subulate, 3–10 mm, entire, equaling flowers; umbellules many-flowered; pedicels 1.5–10 mm, base thickening in fruit into a discoid torus similar to rays. Calyx teeth inconspicuous, minute, ca. 0.2 mm. Petals white. Fruit 2–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm. Carpophore entire. Fl. Jun–Jul, fr. Jul–Aug.
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Ecology

Habitat

Weed of cultivation, and canal banks.

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Cultivated in some specialist gardens and medicinal farms, adventive in alkaline grasslands and on dry mountain slopes; below 500 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ammi visnaga

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ammi visnaga

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Ammi visnaga

Ammi visnaga is a species of flowering plant in the carrot family known by many common names, including bisnaga, toothpickweed, and khella. It is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but it can be found throughout the world as an introduced species. This is an annual or biennial herb growing from a taproot erect to a maximum height near 80 centimeters. Leaves are up to 20 centimeters long and generally oval to triangular in shape but dissected into many small linear to lance-shaped segments. The inflorescence is a compound umbel of white flowers similar to those of other Apiaceae species. The fruit is a compressed oval-shaped body less than 3 millimeters long. This and other Ammi species are sources of khellin, a diuretic extract.

Traditional medicine[edit]

In Egypt, a tea made from the fruit of this species has been used as an herbal remedy for kidney stones. Laborarory rat studies show that the extract slows the buildup of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys and acts as a diuretic.[1]

Chemical constituents[edit]

Khellin, a chemical obtained from Ammi visnaga gives rose red color with KOH (solid) or NaOH & 2-3 drops of water, was used at one time as a smooth muscle relaxant, but its use is limited due to adverse side effects.[2] Amiodarone and cromoglycate are derivates of khellin that are frequently used in modern medicine.

The chemical visnagin, which is found in A. visnaga, has biological activity in animal models as a vasodilator and reduces blood pressure by inhibiting calcium influx into the cell.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vanachayangkul, P., et al. (2010). An aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga fruits and its constituents khellin and visnagin prevent cell damage caused by oxalate in renal epithelial cells. Phytomedicine 17(8), 653-58.
  2. ^ Ziment, I. (1998). How your patients may be using herbalism to treat their asthma - Herbal products are becoming increasingly popular for treating a variety of medical complaints - including asthma. What are these. Journal of Respiratory Diseases 19(12), 1070-83.
  3. ^ Lee, J. K., et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of visnagin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Archives of Pharmacal Research 33(11) 1843–50. PMID 21116788.

Further reading[edit]

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Notes

Comments

This species of the East Mediterranean region is naturalized at Peshawar and other places in the Frontier region. The fruit contains khellin and visnagin and the drug prepared from it is used for heart diseases and asthma.
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Comments

This species has reputed medicinal value.
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