Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Bogbean is a perennial plant, that flowers from May to July (6). The flowers are pollinated by various insects (2).  Both the leaves and the root have a bitter taste, and were once used to treat jaundice and rheumatism. The leaves were used to flavour beer instead of hops in northern England and parts of Europe (5).
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Description

Bogbean is an aquatic or bog plant, hence the common name (2). The 'bean' part of the name refers to the smooth-edged shiny leaves, which are roughly similar in appearance to those of young broad beans (4). Each leaf is divided into three leaflets, hence the specific part of the Latin name, trifoliata, meaning 'three leaves'. The leaves and flowers are typically raised above the surface of the water, arising from creeping root-like storage organs known as 'rhizomes' (2). The smooth flower stalk can grow to 30 cm. It bears numerous white delicate, feathery, and star-like flowers which have a pinkish flush on the outside of the petals (2). The alternative common name 'bog hop' arose from the use of the leaves as a flavouring in beer-making (5).
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, NE Zhejiang [Japan, Kashmir, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia; N Africa, N America, C and SW Asia, Europe].
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Range

This native plant is fairly common throughout Britain, reaching altitude of 915 meters (2). It has decreased in range in parts of the south east of England, mainly as a result of the large-scale drainage of wetlands that has occurred (3). Bogbean is found throughout most of Europe but becomes rare in the Mediterranean area. It also occurs in north and central Asia, Morocco, Greenland and North America (2).
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Distribution: Same as that of the genus.
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Temperate N. Hemisphere.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennial, with a stout rootstock, scapes (10-) 15-30 (-40) cm long. Petiole 7-20 cm long, usually sheathing at base, covering the stem, leaflets subsessile, 3-8 cm x 2-3 cm elliptic oblong-ovate, margin entire or slightly dentate, apex acute. Raceme 2.5-15 cm long on 7-16 cm long peduncle. Pedicel 7-20 mm long, the lowest usually longer. Calyx 4-5 mm long, lobes somewhat obtuse, corolla white-pale pink, 8-12 (-14) mm long, lobes acute. Style c. 6 mm long, selender. Capsule 6-8 mm long, pointed. Seeds numerous, 2-3 mm long, lens shaped, yellow.
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Elevation Range

2900 m
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Description

Rhizomes usually in mud but sometimes floating. Petiole erect, 12-20(-30) cm; leaf blade base vaginate; leaflets elliptic, 2.5-4(-8) cm, base cuneate, margin entire or crenulate, apex obtuse, midvein distinct. Inflorescences many flowered; racemes including scape 30-35 cm; bracts 5-7 mm, margin entire, apex obtuse. Pedicel spreading, 1-1.8 cm. Calyx 4-5 mm; lobes ovate, apex obtuse. Corolla white, tubular, 1.4-1.7 cm, outside glabrous, inside long fimbriate pilose; lobes elliptic-lanceolate, 7.5-10 mm, apex obtuse. Filaments linear, 5.5-6.5 mm; anthers sagittate, 1.8-2 mm. Styles linear, short styles 6-7 mm, long styles 1-1.2 cm; stigma lobes oblong. Capsules globose, 6-7 mm in diam. Seeds orbicular, 2-2.5 mm in diam., smooth. Fl. and fr. May-Jul.
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Ecology

Habitat

Swamps, growing in mud and in open water; 400-3600 m.
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Grows at the shallow margins of lakes, slow-flowing rivers, ponds, bogs and dune slacks. It cannot live in shade (3).
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
irregularly scattered pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta menyanthis causes spots on dead capsule of Menyanthes trifoliata
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / feeds on
Bagous frit feeds on Menyanthes trifoliata
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
gregarious pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta destructiva var. menyanthis causes spots on leaf of Menyanthes trifoliata

Foodplant / gall
Physoderma menyanthis causes gall of live stem of Menyanthes trifoliata

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Plateumaris affinis may be found on flower of Menyanthes trifoliata
Remarks: season: 4-7(-9)

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, rufous-brown, very minute pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria menyanthis causes spots on fading leaf of Menyanthes trifoliata
Remarks: season: 8-9

Plant / associate
imago of Tenthredo moniliata is associated with Menyanthes trifoliata

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Menyanthes trifoliata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 16
Specimens with Barcodes: 31
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Common and widespread. Not threatened (3).
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Threats

Comments: Land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and succession are low-level threats to this species (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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This species is not threatened at present, however drainage of wetlands has caused a marked decrease in this species in south-east England (3).
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Management

Conservation

Conservation action is not required for this common species
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Notes

Comments

This plant occurs on the lake borders of Kashmir valley expected to occur in our region also.
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