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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / gall
Aculus hygrophilus causes gall of distorted, brown leaf of Hypericum calycinum
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe hyperici parasitises Hypericum calycinum

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous, caeomoid aecium of Melampsora hypericorum parasitises live leaf of Hypericum calycinum
Remarks: season: 5-10
Other: major host/prey

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Flower's pattern attracts/deters insects: Aaron's beard
 

Markings on flowers help draw pollinators and at the same time discourage insect herbivores by containing ultraviolet pigments.

     
  "Two categories of pigments, flavonoids and dearomatized isoprenylated phloroglucinols (DIPs), are responsible for the UV demarcations of this flower. Flavonoids had been shown previously to function as floral UV pigments, but DIPs had not been demonstrated to serve in that capacity. We found the DIPs to be present in high concentration in the anthers and ovarian wall of the flower, suggesting that the compounds also serve in defense. Indeed, feeding tests done with one of the DIPs (hypercalin A) showed the compound to be deterrent and toxic to a caterpillar (Utetheisa ornatrix). The possibility that floral UV pigments fulfill both a visual and a defensive function had not previously been contemplated." (Gronquist et al. 2001:13745)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Gronquist, M.; Bezzerides, A.; Attygalle, A.; Meinwald, J.; Eisner, M.; Eisner, T. 2001. Attractive and defensive functions of the ultraviolet pigments of a flower (Hypericum calycinum). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98(24): 13745-13750.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: Native of SE Europe and Asia Minor. It has escaped to the wild in Knox County, TN. (Gillespie. 1959. Castanea 24:24-32).

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

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Wikipedia

Hypericum calycinum

Hypericum calycinum is a prostrate or low-growing shrub species of the genus Hypericum (Hypericaceae). Widely cultivated for its large yellow flowers, its names as a garden plant include Rose of Sharon in Britain and Australia, and Aaron's beard, Great St-John's wort, and Jerusalem star. Grown in Mediterranean climates, widely spread in the Strandja Mountains along the Bulgarian and Turkish Black Sea coast.

Description[edit]

It is a low, creeping, woody shrub to about 1 m tall and 1–2 m wide but often smaller. The green, ovate leaves grow in opposite pairs. The solitary flowers are 3–5 cm in diameter, a rich yellow, with five petals and numerous yellow stamens. It is indigenous to southeast Europe and southwest Asia. It is a popular, semi-evergreen garden shrub with many named cultivars and hybrids derived from it.

In North America the name Rose of Sharon is applied to a species in a different order, Hibiscus syriacus.

This species is capable of producing the medicinally active components of H. perforatum (hyperforin etc.), though in different ratios, with adhyperforin predominating, and a low level of hyperforin present.[2]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Linnaeus, C. von (1767), Mantissa Plantarum 1: 106 [tax. nov.] Type: "Habitat in America septentrionali?"
  2. ^ Klingauf, P; Beuerle, T; Mellenthin, A; El-Moghazy, SA; Boubakir, Z; Beerhues, L (January 2005). "Biosynthesis of the hyperforin skeleton in Hypericum calycinum cell cultures.". Phytochemistry 66 (2): 139–45. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.11.003. PMID 15652570. 

References[edit]

  • "Hypericum calycinum". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI). Australian National Herbarium. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
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