Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (9) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree Distribution notes: Exotic
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Tall tree with straight trunk and ± horizontal main branches; bark smooth, usually with scattered conical spines to 1.5 cm long; young branches glabrous or pubescent. Leaves 5–9-foliolate; leaflets narrowly elliptic-obovate, entire, acuminate, 7–20 x 1.8–6.5 cm, glabrous; petiole 5.5–25 cm long, at the apex expanded into an almost circular disk. Flowers often on leafless branches or present when the whole tree is leafless, in 1–15-flowered axillary clusters. Calyx 9–15 mm long, lobed, glabrous outside, pubescent inside. Petals pink or white, oblong, 2–3.5 cm long. Filament-tube 5–9 mm long; anthers coiled or reniform. Ovary glabrous or nearly so; style 2.5–3.3 cm long. Capsule ± woody, smooth, brown, oblong-ellipsoid, up to c. 26 x 11 cm. Seeds subglobose, c. 6 mm across.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Kenfack, David

Source: Vascular Plants of Korup National Park

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

"Planted around the villages and roadsides. Common. Native of Africa, now widely planted in the tropics."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune Karnataka: Coorg, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"
Global Distribution

Throughout the tropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.:
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Brazil (South America)
Comoros (Africa & Madagascar)
Ecuador (South America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Gabon (Africa & Madagascar)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
French Guiana (South America)
Guyana (South America)
Venezuela (South America)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Peru (South America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
Bolivia (South America)
China (Asia)
Suriname (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Bombax mompoxense Kunth:
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Bombax cumanense Kunth:
Bolivia (South America)
Venezuela (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Distribution

Widespread in Tropical Africa and America

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Kenfack, David

Source: Vascular Plants of Korup National Park

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Throughout the tropics of the world.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In clusters at the ends of branchlets, white or whitish-yellow. Flowering January-April.

Fruit

An ellipsoid to fusiform capsule, indehiscent, valves with silky fibres; seeds numerous, subglobose, enveloped in silky cotton.

Field tips

Stem prickly when young, later smooth, green. Branchlets drooping. Tree leafless when flowering.

Leaf Arrangement

Whorled

Leaf Type

Digitate

Leaf Shape

Oblanceolate, elliptic or oblong

Leaf Apex

Subacute or acuminate

Leaf Base

Obtuse-cuneate

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Trees to 30 m tall; buttresses small or absent, trunk often sparsely spiny; main branches verticillate, spreading horizontally; young branches spiny. Petiole 7-14(-25) cm, longer than leaflet blade; leaflets 5-9, petiolules 3-4(-10) mm; blades oblong to lanceolate, 5-20 × 1.5-6.5 cm, thinly leathery, glabrous, base acuminate, margin entire or very sparsely and minutely toothed near apex, apex shortly acuminate. Flowers subterminal, solitary or in fascicles of up to 15, produced before or simultaneous with new leaves. Pedicel (1.8-)2.5-5 cm. Calyx (0.9-)1.2-2 cm, adaxially glabrous. Petals pink or white, obovate-oblong, 2.5-4 × 0.7-1.5 cm, abaxially densely white villous, adaxially glabrous. Filaments on staminal tube varying in length; anthers reniform. Ovary glabrous; style 2.5-3.5 cm; stigma rod-shaped, 5-lobed. Capsule oblong, tapering toward tip, 7.5-15(-26) × 3-5(-11) cm, fruiting pedicel 7-25 cm, endocarp leathery, smooth. Seeds globose, ca. 6 mm in diam. Fl. Mar-Apr.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Tree up to 100 ft. high trunk with large buttresses, branches with or without prickles, generally prickly in young stage, prickles acute. Leaves 5-9 foliolate, glabrous, petiole 5-23 cm long, leaflet oblong lanceolate, acuminate-7-20 cm x 2.3-4.2 cm, petiolule 0.5-1.2 cm long. Flowers usually appear before the flush of leaves. Inflorescence fasciculate few to many flowered. Flowers yellow or white, pedicel 2.5-3 cm long. Calyx campanulate 4-5 lobed, lobes 1-1.2 cm long, glabrous outside, silky villous inside. Petals obovate-oblong, 2.5-4 cm x 1-1.5 cm, tomentose outside, except the base, pubescent near the apex inside. Staminal column 5-5.5 mm long, glabrous, filament 2.5 cm long, each branch bearing 2-3 anfractuose anthers. Ovary globose, stigma capitate. Capsule wooly ellipsoid or fusiform, acute at both ends 10-26 cm long and 3-4 cm in diam. Seeds numerous subglobose 5.5-7 mm long and 4.4-5.5 mm wide.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Trees, to 20 m high, buttressed at base; bark green or greenish-grey, peeling off in round bosses; exudation red, watery, sticky; branches horizontal in whorls. Leaves digitately compound, alternate, gathered towards the apex of branchlets; rachis 5-20 cm, slender, glabrous, swollen tip and base; leaflets 5-9; petiolule 3-8 mm, stout, glabrous; lamina 4.5-14.5 x 1.5-4 cm, elliptic, obovate-oblong or ovate-oblong, base acute or cuneate, apex acute or acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, chartaceous; lateral nerves 5-14 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, creamy white, usually in clusters of 3-10, axillary or grouped towards the ends of leafless branchlets, rarely solitary, axillary; pedicels 2-4 cm long, stout, glabrous; calyx green, campanulate, ca. 1 cm long, irregularly 4-5 lobed, coriaceous, glabrous outside, silky pubescent inside, persistent; petals 5, 2.5-4 x 1-1.5 cm, creamy white, obovate-spathulate, adnate to the base of staminal tube, tomentose out side except at the base pubescent near the apex inside, imbricate; staminal tube divided into 5 phalanges, each dividing again into 2 filiform branches bearing 2-3 anafractose, 1-locular twisted anthers; ovary superior, globular or ovoid, yellow, sessile, tomentose at apex; 5-locular, ovules many in each locule, on axil placenta; style white, filiform at base, suddenly obliquely enlarged above the stamens; stigma capitate. Fruit a capsule 7.5-25 x 3-4 cm, ellipsoid to fusiform, green when young, become brown, narrowed at both ends, indehiscent or tardily dehiscing into 5 valves, septa membranous; seeds numerous, subpyriform, black with copious white silky fibres, testa brown to blackish."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

"Habit: A large deciduous tree, upto 20m."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

Habit: Large tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonym

Bombax pentandrum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 511. 1753; Eriodendron anfractuosum Candolle.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Cultivated
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan [native to tropical America and possibly West Africa; now pantropical, regarded as invasive on some Pacific islands].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: February-June
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ceiba pentandra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

"

The cotton is used for making pillows and cushions. The roots are stimulant tonic, diuretic, emetic and antispasmodic, they have hypoglycaemic effect and are useful in diabetes, dysentery and gonorrhoea.

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Folklore

Apis dorsata forage on the flower during night time.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Ceiba pentandra

Ceiba pentandra Telugu: బూరుగ is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae (previously separated in the family Bombacaceae), native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and (as the variety C. pentandra var. guineensis) to tropical west Africa. Kapok is the most used common name for the tree and may also refer to the cotton obtained from its seed pods. The tree is also known as the Java cotton, Java kapok, silk-cotton or ceiba.

Characteristics[edit]

The tree grows to 60–70 m (200–230 ft) tall and has a very substantial trunk up to 3 m (10 ft) in diameter with buttresses. The trunk and many of the larger branches are often (but not always) crowded with very large, robust simple thorns. The leaves are compound of 5 to 9 leaflets, each up to 20 cm (8 in) and palm like. Adult trees produce several hundred 15 cm (6 in) seed pods. The pods contain seeds surrounded by a fluffy, yellowish fibre that is a mix of lignin and cellulose.[2]

Uses[edit]

Kapok seeds within fibres in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

The fibre is light, very buoyant, resilient, resistant to water but it is very flammable. The process of harvesting and separating the fibre is labour-intensive and manual. It is difficult to spin but is used as an alternative to down as filling in mattresses, pillows, upholstery, zafus, and stuffed toys such as teddy bears, and for insulation. It was previously much used in life jackets and similar devices until synthetic materials largely replaced the fibre. The seeds produce an oil used locally in soap and that can be used as fertilizer.

Native tribes along the Amazon River harvest the kapok fibre to wrap around their blowgun darts. The fibres create a seal that allows the pressure to force the dart through the tube.

The commercial tree is most heavily cultivated in the rainforests of Asia, notably in Java (hence its nicknames), Philippines, Malaysia, Hainan Island in China as well as in South America. The flowers are an important source of nectar and pollen for honeybees.

Ethnomedical uses[edit]

Ceiba pentandra bark decoction has been used as a diuretic, aphrodisiac, and to treat headache, as well as type II diabetes. It is used as an additive to some versions of the hallucinogenic drink Ayahuasca.

Kapok seed oil[edit]

A pressed seed oil can be derived from the seeds of the kapok tree. The oil has a yellow colour and a pleasant, mild odour and taste.[3] It has similar characteristics to cottonseed oil. It becomes rancid quickly when exposed to air. Kapok oil is produced in India, Indonesia and Malaysia. It has an iodine value of 85-100, which makes it a nondrying oil. This means that it does not dry out significantly when exposed to the air.[3] Kapok oil has some potential as a biofuel and in paint preparation.

Religion and folklore[edit]

The kapok is a sacred symbol in Maya mythology.[4]

According to the folklore of Trinidad and Tobago, the Castle of the Devil is a huge kapok growing deep in the forest in which Bazil the demon of death was imprisoned by a carpenter. The carpenter tricked the devil into entering the tree in which he carved seven rooms, one above the other, into the trunk. Folklore claims that Bazil still resides in that tree.[5]

Symbolism[edit]

C. pentandra is the national emblem of Guatemala,[4] Puerto Rico,[6] and Equatorial Guinea. It appears on the coat of arms and flag of Equatorial Guinea.[7]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ gbif.org
  2. ^ Gibbs, P. E.; Semir, J. Año (2003). "A taxonomic revision of the genus Ceiba Mill. (Bombacaceae)". ISSN 0211-1322. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  3. ^ a b Kapok seed oil From the German Transport Information Service
  4. ^ a b Hellmuth, Nicholas (March 2011). "Ceiba pentandra". Revue Magazine. 
  5. ^ "Tobago’s Avatar – ‘The tree of life’". Tobago News. 2012-03-01. 
  6. ^ Philpott, Don (2003). Landmark Puerto Rico. Hunter Publishing, Inc. p. 14. ISBN 9781901522341. 
  7. ^ Berry, Bruce. "Equatorial Guinea". CRW Flags. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 5.0 of 5

Notes

Comments

Rarely cultivated in Pakistan for its beautiful flowers.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments

This species is grown as a street tree and for the waterproof fibers surrounding the seeds (kapok).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 1.0 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!