Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: It is currently known from Oahu, Lanai, Maui, and Hawaii and may possibly occur on Kauai (Federal Register, Vol. 58, no. 176).

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Historic Range:
U.S.A. (HI)

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Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Hibiscus brackenridgei A. Gray in Wilkes
Catalog Number: US 12845
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Wilkes Explor. Exped.
Year Collected: 1838
Locality: Maui, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Holotype: Gray, A. 1854. U.S. Explor. Exped. 15: 175.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Dry shrublands and forests. On ridges, in gulches, and on old lava flows.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20

Comments: 12 populations are known to exist (Federal Register, Vol. 58, no. 176).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled

Reasons: Endemic to the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai, and Hawaii. Fewer than 10 occurrences are currently known, totaling fewer than 400 plants. Threats include fire, agriculture, and alien plants and animals.

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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 11/10/1994
Lead Region:   Pacific Region (Region 1) 
Where Listed:


Population detail:

Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Hibiscus brackenridgei, see its USFWS Species Profile

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Threats

Comments: The primary threats appear to be habitat degradtion and possible predation by pigs, goats, axis deer, and cattle; competition with alien plant species; road construction; and stochastic extinction and/or reduced reproductive vigor due to the small number of individuals (Federal Register, Vol. 58, no. 176).

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Management

Biological Research Needs: Locate other populations and determine threats to the populations.

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