Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Along sea coasts often cultivated
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Pune, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg Karnataka: N. Kanara"
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"
Global Distribution

Pantropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; pantropical].
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Distribution. Tropics and subtropics of both the hemispheres. It is occa¬sionally cultivated in Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs evergreen or trees, 4-10 m tall, to 60 cm d.b.h.; bark gray-white. Branchlets glabrous or nearly so, rarely stellate puberulent or stellate. Stipules foliaceous, oblong, ca. 2 × 1.2 cm, stellate pilose, apex rounded, caducous; petiole 3-8 cm; leaf blade nearly orbicular to broadly ovate, 8-15 × 8-15 cm, leathery, green, abaxially densely gray-white stellate puberulent, adaxially very sparsely stellate scaly, glabrescent, basal veins 7 or 9, base cordate, margin entire or obscurely crenate, apex abruptly acuminate. Inflorescence a 1- to few-flowered racemelike cyme, terminal or axillary; peduncle 4-5 cm. Pedicel 1-3 cm, with 1 pair of stipulelike bracteoles at base. Epicalyx lobes 7-10, joined for 1/3-1/2 of length, free lobes 2-2.5 mm, triangular-acuminate with slightly rounded sinuses, densely gray-white stellate puberulent. Calyx 1.5-2.5 cm, connate proximally for 1/4-1/3 of length, lobes 5, lanceolate, stellate puberulent, persistent. Corolla yellow with dark purple center, campanulate, 6-7.5 cm in diam.; petals obovate, 4-4.5 cm, yellow stellate puberulent abaxially. Filament tube ca. 3 cm, glabrous. Style branches 5, slender, with glandular hairs. Capsule subglobose to ovoid, ca. 2 cm, obscurely beaked, densely fascicled-hirsute, valves 5, woody. Seeds reniform, smooth, glabrous. Fl. Jun-Aug.
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Description

A medium sized tree with stellate tomentum, glabrescent. Leaves 3-20 (-30) cm long, 2-20 (-30) cm broad, orbicular to ovate, cordate at base, usually entire or undulate to crenate, acute to acuminate, almost glabrous above, hairy below, lower surface at base with linear glands on 1-5 nerves, coriaceous; stipules foliaceous, clasping the stem, 1-3 cm long, 0.5-1 cm broad, ovate, caducous. Flowers solitary, clustered at the end of branches; pedicel c. 1 cm long, in fruit up to 2 cm, stellate pubescent. Epicalyx cupular, 5-10 mm long, 7-12 toothed; teeth deltoid or triangular, 2-3 mm long and broad. Calyx 1/3 to 1/2 fused, 1.5-3 cm long; lobes lanceolate, c. 1 cm broad, each with linear gland on the central nerve. Corolla 5-8 cm across, yellow with or without crimson centre; petals obovate, 4.5-7 cm long, 4-5 cm broad, claw slightly hairy on margin. Staminal column c. 3 cm long. Ovary oblong, pubescent, 5 mm long. Capsule 2-3 cm long, c. 2 cm broad, beaked, densely stellate hairy, 10 celled. Seeds many, dark brown 4-5 mm long, reniform, stellulate hairy.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Trees, to 20 m high, bark greyish-brown, smooth; young parts softly stellate-tomentose with prominent annular stipular scars. Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate; stipules 15-40 x 8-14 mm, oblong-lanceolate, lateral, enclosing the apical bud, many veined, stellate-puberulent externally, glabrous internally, deciduous; petiole 4-18 cm long (commonly subequal to the blade), slender, minutely stellate pubescent; lamina 6-20 x 9-20 cm, broadly orbicular, base cordate or truncate, apex shortly acuminate, margin entire or crenate; coiaceous, minutely stellate hairy above, densely stellate, tomentose beneath; 7-9 nerves from the base, palmate, prominent, with a linear nectary at the base of main 1-5 nerves beneath, lateral nerves 5-7 pairs pinnate, prominent, intercostae scalariform, prominent. Flowers bisexual, yellow, axillary, solitary or in terminal racemes; pedicels 5-30 mm long, club-shaped, stout, minutely stellate-pubescent; involucellar bracts 12 mm long, cupular, segments 7-12, triangular to lanceolate, divided to the middle, densely stellate pubescent outside, sericeous within; calyx 15-20 mm long, campanulate, 5-fid or parted below the middle, the lobes lanceolate-acute, densely stellate-pubescent, with nectary medially positioned on midrib of each lobe (nectaries sometimes absent); corolla yellow with or without a red centre changing to pink, softly stellate-tomentose, 6-8 cm across; petals 5, obovate; staminal column 25-30 mm long, glabrous, surrounded by 5 triangular teeth, antheriiferous throughout; filaments 1-3 mm long; anthers reniform; ovary superior, ovoid, obscurely 5-angled; styles emergent from staminal column, glandular hairy; stigmas 5, capitate, purplish. Fruit a capsule, 1.5-2 x 1.5-2 cm, subglobose or slightly obovoid, subequal to calyx, densely pubescent with yellowish or brownish, pericarp thin, mesocarp fibrous, 5-locular; seeds many, reniform, blackish-brown, papillose."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Synonym

Hibiscus boninensis Nakai; H. tiliaceus var. heterophyllus Nakai; H. tiliaceus var. tortuosus (Roxburgh) Masters; H. tortuosus Roxburgh; Pariti boninense (Nakai) Nakai; P. tiliaceum (Linnaeus) A. Jussieu; P. tiliaceum var. heterophyllum (Nakai) Nakai; Talipariti tiliaceum (Linnaeus) Fryxell.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Along streamside and banks of tidal streams and mangrove forests, also grown as live fence"
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Sea shores, along streams, sandy soil; near sea level to 300 m.
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: December-January
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hibiscus tiliaceus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NU - Unrankable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Seashores throughout the tropics: southern Florida including Florida Keys, Bermuda, and through West Indies from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago. Also from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. Found along roadsides, in thickets and swampy areas in the lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Leaf: In Surinam, leaves are mixed with water and applied to the head to cool it and promote hair growth in typhus patients. Decoction used for treating urinary problems. Leaf has emollient mucilage used as a skin softener in French Guiana.

  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Uittien, H. 1932. Malvaceae, pp. 1-25. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 3, Part 1. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.

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Wikipedia

Hibiscus tilliaceus

Hibiscus tiliaceus is a species of flowering tree in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is native to the Old World tropics.[3] Common names include Sea Hibiscus, Beach Hibiscus, Coastal (or Coast) Hibiscus, Coastal (or Coast) Cottonwood, Green Cottonwood, Native Hibiscus, Native Rosella, Cottonwood Hibiscus, Kurrajong, Sea Rosemallow, Norfolk Hibiscus, Hau (Hawaiian), and Purau (Tahitian). The specific epithet, "tiliaceus", refers to its resemblance to the related Tilia species.[4]

Description[edit]

H. tiliaceus reaches a height of 4–10 m (13–33 ft), with a trunk up to 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter.[3] The flowers of H. tiliaceus are bright yellow with a deep red centre upon opening. Over the course of the day, the flowers deepen to orange and finally red before they fall. The branches of the tree often curve over time.

Range and habitat[edit]

H. tiliaceus is a common coastal plant in Eastern and Northern Australia, Oceania, Maldives and Southeast Asia. It has become naturalized in parts of the New World, such as Florida, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.[3] It is uncertain if the species is native to Hawaii, as it may have been introduced by the Polynesians.[4] H. tiliaceus can be found at elevations from sea level to 800 m (2,600 ft) in areas that receive 900–2,500 mm (35–98 in) of annual rainfall. It is commonly found growing on beaches, by rivers and in mangrove swamps. Sea Hibiscus is well adapted to grow in coastal environment in that it tolerates salt and waterlogging and can grow in quartz sand, coral sand, marl, limestone,[5] and crushed basalt.[6] It grows best in slightly acidic to alkaline soils (pH of 5-8.5).[5] The plant lends its name to a coastal community in Cotton Tree, Queensland, Australia.

Uses[edit]

The wood of H. tiliaceus has a specific gravity of 0.6. It has been used in a variety of applications, such as seacraft construction, firewood, and wood carvings. It is easy to plane and turns well, so it is regarded by many as a high quality furniture wood. Its tough bark can be made into durable rope and used for sealing cracks in boats. The bark and roots may be boiled to make a cooling tea to cool fevers, and its young leafy shoots may be eaten as vegetables. Native Hawaiians used the wood to make ʻiako (spars) for waʻa (outrigger canoes), mouo (fishing net floats), and ʻau koʻi (adze handles). Kaula ʻilihau (cordage) was made from the bast fibers.[7] Hau would be used to make ʻama (canoe floats) if wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) was unavailable.[8]

H. tiliaceus, is widely used in Asian countries as a subject for the art of bonsai, especially Taiwan. The finest specimens are taken from Kenting National Park. Lending itself to free grafting, the leaf size is reduced fairly quickly.

In Indonesia H. tiliaceus, is also used for fermenting tempeh. The undersides of the leaves are covered in downy hairs known technically as trichomes to which the mold Rhizopus oligosporus can be found adhering to in the wild. Soybeans are pressed into the leaf, and stored. Fermentation occurs resulting in tempeh.[9]

Chemistry[edit]

Cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in flowers of H. tiliaceus.[10] Leaves of H. tiliaceus displayed strong free radical scavenging activity and the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity among 39 tropical plant species in Okinawa.[11] With greater UV radiation in coastal areas, there is no evidence that leaves and flowers of natural coastal populations of H. tiliaceus have stronger antioxidant properties than planted inland populations.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hibiscus tiliaceus". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  2. ^ "Talipariti tiliaceum (L.) Fryxell". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2002-07-24. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  3. ^ a b c Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). "Hau, sea hibiscus" (PDF). Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and Introduced). United States Forest Service. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  4. ^ a b Motooka, P.; L. Castro; D. Nelson; G. Nagai; L. Ching. "Hibiscus tiliaceus Hau". Weeds of Hawaiʻi’s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  5. ^ a b Elevitch, Craig R.; Lex A.J. Thomson (April 2006). Hibiscus tiliaceus (beach hibiscus) (PDF). The Traditional Tree Initiative. 
  6. ^ Allen, James A. (2003-01-01). "Hibiscus tiliaceus L." (PDF). Tropical Tree Seed Manual. Reforestation, Nurseries & Genetics Resources. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  7. ^ "hau, hau kaʻekaʻe". Hawaii Ethnobotany Online Database. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2009-02-28. 
  8. ^ Medeiros, A. C.; C.F. Davenport; C.G. Chimera (1998). Auwahi: Ethnobotany of a Hawaiian Dryland Forest (PDF). Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. 
  9. ^ Shirtleff, William; Akiko Aoyagi (1979). The Book of Tempeh (PDF). Soyinfo Center, Harper and Row. 
  10. ^ Lowry, J.B. (1976). “Floral anthocyanins of some Malesian Hibiscus species”. Phytochemistry 15: 1395–1396.
  11. ^ (Masuda et al., 1999; 2005)
  12. ^ (Wong et al., 2009; Wong & Chan, 2010).

Bibliography[edit]

  • Masuda, T., Yonemori, S., Oyama, Y., Takeda, Y., Tanaka, T., Andoh, T., Shinohara, A., Nakata, M. (1999). ”Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of environmental plants: activity of the leaf extracts from seashore plants”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 1749–1754.
  • Masuda, T., Yamashita, D., Takeda, Y., Yonemori, S. (2005). “Screening for tyrosinase inhibitors among extracts of seashore plants and identification of potent inhibitors from Garcinia subelliptica”. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 69: 197–201.
  • Wong, S.K., Lim, Y.Y., Chan, E.W.C. (2009). “Antioxidant properties of Hibiscus: Species variation, altitudinal change, coastal influence and floral colour change”. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 21(4): 307–315. http://info.frim.gov.my/cfdocs/infocenter_application/jtfsonline/jtfs/ V21n4/307-315.pdf.
  • Wong, S.K., Chan, E.W.C. (2010). “Antioxidant properties coastal and inland populations of Hibiscus tiliaceus”. ISME/GLOMIS Electronic Journal 8(1): 1–2. http://www.glomis.com/ej/pdf/EJ_8-1.pdf.
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Notes

Common Names

French Guiana: grand maho. Surinam: maho, mao.

  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Uittien, H. 1932. Malvaceae, pp. 1-25. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 3, Part 1. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.

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Comments

Borssum Waalkes (Blumea 14: 30-38. 1966) recognized a series of six SubSpe. Chinese material belongs to the nominate SubSpe, Hibiscus tiliaceus subsp. tiliaceus.

Fiber from the bast of Hibiscus tiliaceus is used on Hainan to make fishing nets.

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Comments

Economically it is quite an important plant. The fibre obtained from the bark is of fair quality. The roots, bark, leaves and flowers are said to be variously used in medicine.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Fryxell's (2001) Talipariti tiliaceum includes material treated by Kartesz (1999) as Hibiscus tiliaceus (= Talipariti tiliaceum var. tiliaceum) (native to southeast Asia, Australia, and Oceania; possibly native to Hawaii [may have been introduced by early Polynesian settlers]; exotic in Florida) as well as material treated by Kartesz (1999) as Hibiscus pernambucensis (= Talipariti tiliaceum var. pernambucense) (native to at least Puerto Rico [Kartesz 1999] and apparently other parts of the Caribbean and Central and South America).

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