Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Prostrate or scrambling annual herb, stems up to 3 m. Most parts with small reddish-brown, hooked prickles. Leaves variously 3-5 lobed, sometimes only shallowly so; margins coarsely toothed; leaf-like stipules conspicuous. Flowers large, solitary, axillary, yellow with a purple centre. The epicalyx has forked bracts, the inner branch linear, the outer branch spathulate. Capsule spherical-ovoid with acute apex.
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Description

Shrub or small tree, occasionally a large scrambling perennial herb, up to 10 m tall. Stems more or less densely stellate-hairy and armed with thick short spines. Leaves almost round in outline, up to 16 × 16 cm, more or less distinctly 3-7-lobed, stellate-hairy on both surfaces; base truncate to cordate, usually with fissured gland near the base of the midrib below; margin irregularly toothed. Flowers solitary, axillary or sometimes forming apparent terminal racemes, due to the absence of leaves, reddish-purple with a darker centre, 7-8 cm in diameter. Epicalyx bracts 7-8, 8-12 mm long densely stellate hairy, free. Calyx 2.5-3 cm long; lobes lanceolate, joined for c. 5 mm at the base and an elliptic gland on the midrib. Fruit a pointed ovate capsule, 20 × 15 mm, densely bristly.
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Derivation of specific name

diversifolius: with diverse, variable leaves; rivularis: occurring near rivers.
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated as vegetable
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Moist Deciduous Forests. Also in Plains
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Moist and Dry deciduous forest. Also in the plains.
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Widespread throughout the Old World tropics.
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Worldwide distribution

Angola, Botswana, Caprivi-Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga, S. Kanara"
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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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"Maharashtra: Pune Karnataka: N. Kanara, S. Kanara Kerala: All districts"
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"
Global Distribution

Paleotropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Nasik, Pune, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane Kerala: All districts"
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Hainan, Hong Kong, S Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Australia].
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Yunnan (Simao) [Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Africa].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs annual, subshrublike, 0.5-2(-4) m tall, usually procumbent, sometimes scandent, most parts sparsely villous and aculeate, prickles retrorsely curved. Stipules auriculate, foliaceous, ca. 5 mm, sparsely long hirsute; petiole 2-7 cm, abaxially sparsely aculeate, adaxially densely long hirsute; leaf blade palmately 3-5-lobed, 5-10 × 5-11 cm, lobes ovate-lanceolate, 3-7 × 1.5-3 cm, sparsely strigose on both surfaces, margin irregularly serrate; basal veins 5, sparsely aculeate. Flowers solitary, axillary. Pedicel 1-5 cm, sparsely aculeate and villous. Epicalyx lobes 8-10, base terete, 5-7 mm, inner branch erect, linear-lanceolate to filiform, 1-2 cm, aculeate, outer branch/abaxial appendage ovate to elliptic, 0.7-1 cm. Calyx turning reddish in fruit, shallowly cup-shaped, lobes 5, ovate-lanceolate, apex long acuminate, ca. 2.5 cm, aculeate. Corolla pale yellow with dark red center; petals ca. 3.5 cm. Capsule ovate-globose, ca. 1.2 × 1 cm, densely scabrous and hirsute with long hairs, shortly beaked. Seeds reniform, sparsely strigose with white minute hairs. Fl. Sep-Mar.
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Description

Herbs, to 1.5 m tall, trailing or suberect, most parts simple-pubescent and aculeate, prickles with prominent basal tubercles, retrorsely reflexed, straight. Stipules lanceolate, 5-14 × 2-3 mm, margins setose; petiole 2-8 cm, abaxially aculeate, adaxially densely pubescent; leaf blade broadly ovate or palmately 3-5(-7)-lobed, 2.5-10 × 3-8 cm, both surfaces with tubercle-based prickly hairs on veins. Flowers solitary, axillary. Pedicel 1.5-7 cm. Epicalyx lobes 8-12, 1-2 cm long overall, inner branch erect, linear-lanceolate, outer branch oblong-ovate, slightly shorter. Calyx deeply divided, shorter than epicalyx, lobes adaxially densely white puberulent. Corolla yellow with purple center, 5-10 cm wide. Capsule ovoid, ca. 1.5 cm, enclosed in enlarged calyx, densely hairy. Seeds brownish, ± reniform, 4-5 mm, sparsely white scaly.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Scandent or trailing undershrubs; stems, petioles and pedicels armed with recurved prickles. Leaves 5-10 x 5-12 cm, ovate-suborbicular, 3-5-palmilobed, lobes lanceolate, shallowly cordate to subtruncate at base, margins coarsely serrate to dentate, apex acute, basally 5-7-nerved, prickly below on the nerves; petiole 4-10 cm long; stipules 8-12 x 3-5 mm, foliaceous, auricled at base, margins ciliate. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels 4-7 cm long, jointed at the base of flower, prickly. involucral bracts 10 -12, 18-22 x 2-3 mm, spathulate, bifurcate, spreading; appendage erect, up to 1 cm long, linear, pubescent. Calyx tube to 6 mm long; lobes 5, 1-1.5 cm long, ovate, long-acuminate, prickly. Corolla c. 5 cm across, creamy-yellow with dark purplish center; petals 2.5-5 x 2-4 cm, obovate, apex rounded. Staminal column 1.5-2 cm long, glandular hairy, antheriferous throughout; filaments 1-2 mm long. Ovary 3-4 mm long, subconical, densely appressed hairy; stigma capitate, pruplish. Capsules c. 2 cm long, ovoid or conical enclosed within accrescent calyx, densely covered with closely appressed hairs. Seeds c. 3 mm long, angular, brownish-black."
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Diagnostic

"Rambling or climbing shrubs; stems, petioles and pedicels armed with recurved prickles, often intermingled with dense stellate indumentum. Leaves entire to 3-5-angled or lobed, 4-8 x 3-7 cm, cordate or truncate at the base, margins coarsely serrate, apex acuminate, prickly on the nerves beneath; petiole 4-7 cm long, prickly; stipules c. 7 x 3 mm, lanceolate, ciliate. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels 1.5-5 cm long, jointed above middle, prickly. Involucral bracts 10-12, c. 15 x 3 mm, bifurcate, apex spathulate. Calyx tube c. 1 cm long, nerves densely pubescent with long stellate and simple hairs; lobes 5, c. 10 x 4 mm, lanceolate. Corolla c. 8 cm across, yellow with deep purple center; petals 5, 4-5 x 3-4 cm, obovate. Staminal column up to 1.5 cm long, antheriferous throughout; filaments c. 3 mm long, purplish; anthers purplish. Ovary c. 5 mm long, ovoid, 5-celled, densely apprssed hairy; stigma 5, capitate. Capsule c. 1.5 cm long, ovoid or conical, bristly hairy. Seeds c. 4 mm long, 3-gonous, dark brown, concentrically tubercled."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Diagnostic

Habit: Scandent Subshrub
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Diagnostic

Habit: Rambling shrubs
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Synonym

Hibiscus aculeatus Roxburgh (1832), not Walter (1788), nor F. Dietrich (1817), nor G. Don (1831); H. furcatus Roxburgh ex Candolle (1824), not Willdenow (1809); H. surattensis Linnaeus var. furcatus Roxburgh ex Hochreutiner.
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Synonym

Furcaria surattensis (Linnaeus) Kosteletzky.
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Type Information

Isosyntype for Hibiscus paludosus Merr.
Catalog Number: US 3415445
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. S. Clemens
Year Collected: 1907
Locality: Camp Keithley, Lake Lanao, Mindanao., Mindanao, Surigao del Sur, Philippines, Asia-Tropical
  • Isosyntype: Merrill, E. D. 1908. Philipp. J. Sci., C. 3: 151.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Moist deciduous forests, also in the plains"
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General Habitat

"Dry and moist deciduous forests, also in the plains"
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Forest margins, open slopes, valleys, streamsides; 300-1200 m.
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About 1500 m.
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Population Biology

Frequency

Frequent
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: October-January
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Flowering and fruiting: September-March
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hibiscus surattensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Hibiscus diversifolius

Hibiscus diversifolius (Swamp Hibiscus) is a widespread species of hibiscus. It grows to between 1 and 2 metres in height, with prickly stems and yellow flowers with a maroon basal spot during spring summer.[1]

Distribution[edit]

It occurs in tropical Africa, New Guinea, the Philippines, many Pacific Islands, Central and South America, the Galapagos Islands, New Zealand, Norfolk Island[2] as well as the states of New South Wales and Queensland in Australia.[3][1][4] There is disagreement over its native range. Some sources consider it native only to Africa, and naturalised elsewhere;[5] but it is considered a native in New Zealand[3] and Australia[1]

It is found in low, swampy areas; in Africa it may occur inland or near the coast, but in all other continents it occurs only in coastal areas. This distribution, together with genomic evidence, suggests that it originated in Africa, and colonised the other continents through long-range salt-water dispersal.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c New South Wales Flora Online: Hibiscus diversifolius Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney, Australia.
  2. ^ "Hibiscus diversifolius". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. 
  3. ^ a b "Hibiscus diversifolius". New Zealand Plant Conversation Network. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  4. ^ van Leeuwen FFN et al (November 2008). "Fossil Pollen as a Guide to Conservation in the Galápagos". Science 322 (5905): 1206. doi:10.1126/science.1163454. PMID 19023075. 
  5. ^ "Hibiscus diversifolius Jacq.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. 
  6. ^ Wilson, F. Douglas (1994). "The genome biogeography of Hibiscus L. section Furcaria DC". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 41 (1): 13–25. doi:10.1007/BF00051419. 
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Notes

Comments

Hibiscus hispidissimus is apparently known in China only by a single 19th-century collection, A. Henry 13566. See Pradeep and Sivarajan (Taxon 40: 634-637. 1991) for a discussion of the nomenclature of this species.
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Comments

The auriculate stipules and ovate epicalyx lobe appendages of this species are instantly diagnostic.
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