Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated as vegetable
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Moist Deciduous Forests. Also in Plains
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Moist and Dry deciduous forest. Also in the plains.
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Description

Prostrate or scrambling annual herb, stems up to 3 m. Most parts with small reddish-brown, hooked prickles. Leaves variously 3-5 lobed, sometimes only shallowly so; margins coarsely toothed; leaf-like stipules conspicuous. Flowers large, solitary, axillary, yellow with a purple centre. The epicalyx has forked bracts, the inner branch linear, the outer branch spathulate. Capsule spherical-ovoid with acute apex.
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Distribution

"Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga, S. Kanara"
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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"Maharashtra: Pune Karnataka: N. Kanara, S. Kanara Kerala: All districts"
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"
Global Distribution

Paleotropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Nasik, Pune, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane Kerala: All districts"
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hibiscus hispidissimus Griff.:
Burma (Asia)
Bangladesh (Asia)
India (Asia)
Sri Lanka (Asia)
Thailand (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hibiscus aculeatus Walter:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hibiscus surattensis L.:
Burma (Asia)
Bhutan (Asia)
Cambodia (Asia)
Cameroon (Africa & Madagascar)
China (Asia)
Gabon (Africa & Madagascar)
India (Asia)
Liberia (Africa & Madagascar)
Laos (Asia)
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
Mozambique (Africa & Madagascar)
Philippines (Asia)
Sri Lanka (Asia)
Thailand (Asia)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
Tanzania (Africa & Madagascar)
Vietnam (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Hainan, Hong Kong, S Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Australia].
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Yunnan (Simao) [Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Africa].
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Worldwide distribution

Widespread throughout the Old World tropics.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs annual, subshrublike, 0.5-2(-4) m tall, usually procumbent, sometimes scandent, most parts sparsely villous and aculeate, prickles retrorsely curved. Stipules auriculate, foliaceous, ca. 5 mm, sparsely long hirsute; petiole 2-7 cm, abaxially sparsely aculeate, adaxially densely long hirsute; leaf blade palmately 3-5-lobed, 5-10 × 5-11 cm, lobes ovate-lanceolate, 3-7 × 1.5-3 cm, sparsely strigose on both surfaces, margin irregularly serrate; basal veins 5, sparsely aculeate. Flowers solitary, axillary. Pedicel 1-5 cm, sparsely aculeate and villous. Epicalyx lobes 8-10, base terete, 5-7 mm, inner branch erect, linear-lanceolate to filiform, 1-2 cm, aculeate, outer branch/abaxial appendage ovate to elliptic, 0.7-1 cm. Calyx turning reddish in fruit, shallowly cup-shaped, lobes 5, ovate-lanceolate, apex long acuminate, ca. 2.5 cm, aculeate. Corolla pale yellow with dark red center; petals ca. 3.5 cm. Capsule ovate-globose, ca. 1.2 × 1 cm, densely scabrous and hirsute with long hairs, shortly beaked. Seeds reniform, sparsely strigose with white minute hairs. Fl. Sep-Mar.
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Description

Herbs, to 1.5 m tall, trailing or suberect, most parts simple-pubescent and aculeate, prickles with prominent basal tubercles, retrorsely reflexed, straight. Stipules lanceolate, 5-14 × 2-3 mm, margins setose; petiole 2-8 cm, abaxially aculeate, adaxially densely pubescent; leaf blade broadly ovate or palmately 3-5(-7)-lobed, 2.5-10 × 3-8 cm, both surfaces with tubercle-based prickly hairs on veins. Flowers solitary, axillary. Pedicel 1.5-7 cm. Epicalyx lobes 8-12, 1-2 cm long overall, inner branch erect, linear-lanceolate, outer branch oblong-ovate, slightly shorter. Calyx deeply divided, shorter than epicalyx, lobes adaxially densely white puberulent. Corolla yellow with purple center, 5-10 cm wide. Capsule ovoid, ca. 1.5 cm, enclosed in enlarged calyx, densely hairy. Seeds brownish, ± reniform, 4-5 mm, sparsely white scaly.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Scandent or trailing undershrubs; stems, petioles and pedicels armed with recurved prickles. Leaves 5-10 x 5-12 cm, ovate-suborbicular, 3-5-palmilobed, lobes lanceolate, shallowly cordate to subtruncate at base, margins coarsely serrate to dentate, apex acute, basally 5-7-nerved, prickly below on the nerves; petiole 4-10 cm long; stipules 8-12 x 3-5 mm, foliaceous, auricled at base, margins ciliate. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels 4-7 cm long, jointed at the base of flower, prickly. involucral bracts 10 -12, 18-22 x 2-3 mm, spathulate, bifurcate, spreading; appendage erect, up to 1 cm long, linear, pubescent. Calyx tube to 6 mm long; lobes 5, 1-1.5 cm long, ovate, long-acuminate, prickly. Corolla c. 5 cm across, creamy-yellow with dark purplish center; petals 2.5-5 x 2-4 cm, obovate, apex rounded. Staminal column 1.5-2 cm long, glandular hairy, antheriferous throughout; filaments 1-2 mm long. Ovary 3-4 mm long, subconical, densely appressed hairy; stigma capitate, pruplish. Capsules c. 2 cm long, ovoid or conical enclosed within accrescent calyx, densely covered with closely appressed hairs. Seeds c. 3 mm long, angular, brownish-black."
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Diagnostic

"Rambling or climbing shrubs; stems, petioles and pedicels armed with recurved prickles, often intermingled with dense stellate indumentum. Leaves entire to 3-5-angled or lobed, 4-8 x 3-7 cm, cordate or truncate at the base, margins coarsely serrate, apex acuminate, prickly on the nerves beneath; petiole 4-7 cm long, prickly; stipules c. 7 x 3 mm, lanceolate, ciliate. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels 1.5-5 cm long, jointed above middle, prickly. Involucral bracts 10-12, c. 15 x 3 mm, bifurcate, apex spathulate. Calyx tube c. 1 cm long, nerves densely pubescent with long stellate and simple hairs; lobes 5, c. 10 x 4 mm, lanceolate. Corolla c. 8 cm across, yellow with deep purple center; petals 5, 4-5 x 3-4 cm, obovate. Staminal column up to 1.5 cm long, antheriferous throughout; filaments c. 3 mm long, purplish; anthers purplish. Ovary c. 5 mm long, ovoid, 5-celled, densely apprssed hairy; stigma 5, capitate. Capsule c. 1.5 cm long, ovoid or conical, bristly hairy. Seeds c. 4 mm long, 3-gonous, dark brown, concentrically tubercled."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Diagnostic

Habit: Scandent Subshrub
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Diagnostic

Habit: Rambling shrubs
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Synonym

Hibiscus aculeatus Roxburgh (1832), not Walter (1788), nor F. Dietrich (1817), nor G. Don (1831); H. furcatus Roxburgh ex Candolle (1824), not Willdenow (1809); H. surattensis Linnaeus var. furcatus Roxburgh ex Hochreutiner.
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Synonym

Furcaria surattensis (Linnaeus) Kosteletzky.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Moist deciduous forests, also in the plains"
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General Habitat

"Dry and moist deciduous forests, also in the plains"
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Forest margins, open slopes, valleys, streamsides; 300-1200 m.
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About 1500 m.
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Population Biology

Frequency

Frequent
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: October-January
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Flowering and fruiting: September-March
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hibiscus surattensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Uses

Medicinal
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Notes

Comments

Hibiscus hispidissimus is apparently known in China only by a single 19th-century collection, A. Henry 13566. See Pradeep and Sivarajan (Taxon 40: 634-637. 1991) for a discussion of the nomenclature of this species.
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Comments

The auriculate stipules and ovate epicalyx lobe appendages of this species are instantly diagnostic.
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