Kosteletzkya pentacarpa is native to the coastal wetlands of the Gulf of Mexico, the east coast of the United States (from Florida and Texas up to New York), the Bermudas and Cuba (Alexander et al. 2012). The species is also found in Mediterranean Europe: in Eastern Spain (Llobregat delta, Albufera/Valencia, Balearic islands), France (Corsica) and Italy (Latium and Apulia). Due to its economic use, there was doubt whether the species was native or introduced to Spain, but recent research showed that it is native. Populations occurring in north Italy are considered to be introduced.In Georgia Kosteletzkya pentacarpa grows on only one location in the Anaklia mire in the western part of Kolkheti. In Iran and Azerbaijan the species is found in Talish (Lenqoran) along the west and south coasts of the Caspian Sea. In Russia the species is found along the Volga and along the Don River.
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Catalog Number: US 511882
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: ; Original publication and alleged type specimen examined; Alleged type specimen status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): F. Rugel
Year Collected: 1845
Locality: Ad fl. Manate, Florida austr. occ., Manatee, Florida, United States, North America
- Isolectotype: Areces Berazaín, F. & Fryxell, P. A. 2007. Fl. Rep. Cuba, Ser. A. Pl. Vasc. 13: 50.; Alexander, S. N., et al. 2012. Castanea. 77: 115.; Chapman, A. W. 1860. Fl. S. U.S. 57.; Lectotype: Areces Berazaín, F. & Fryxell, P. A. 2007. Fl. Rep. Cuba, Ser. A. Pl. Vasc. 13: 50.; Alexander, S. N., et al. 2012. Castanea. 77: 115.; Chapman, A. W. 1860. Fl. S. U.S. 57.; Type collection: Areces Berazaín, F. & Fryxell, P. A. 2007. Fl. Rep. Cuba, Ser. A. Pl. Vasc. 13: 50.; Alexander, S. N., et al. 2012. Castanea. 77: 115.; Chapman, A. W. 1860. Fl. S. U.S. 57.
Habitat and Ecology
Kosteletzkya pentacarpa occurs in salty coastal marshes, deltas, along rivers, and depressions in sandy dunes on moist, light (sandy) to medium (loamy) soils with a wide pH range from acid to alkaline. The species is shade-intolerant. In the Llobregat delta, Spain, Kosteletzkya pentacarpa grows in a marshland with Phragmites communis, Juncus maritimus, J. Acutus and Spartina versicolor (Pino and de Roa 2003). In Anaklia (Kolkheti) the species occurs in a Sphagnum dominated Sphagneto-Caricetummire with Sphagnum palustre, Carexvesicaria and Cladiummariscus.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
In Spain 620,973 individuals have been recorded (Commission of the European Communities 2009). Apparently, on the contrary to Italy and France, some subpopulations in Spain are increasing, in particular in Catalonia. On average, the K. pentacarpa population exhibited an increasing dynamics. Despite the increasing dynamics of K. pentacarpos, important reductions in fecundity resulting from biotic agents and recruitment owing to habitat limitations are constraints for population growth. We conclude that the knowledge generated in this long-term study should be used to create new K. pentacarpa populations at the Llobregat delta in order to minimize the risk of extinction following catastrophic events that are nearly impossible to predict (Poan et al. 2007). The population occurs in a 50 ha marshland around the Ricarda lagoon, colonized by Phragmites communis, Juncus maritimus, J. acutus and Spartina versicolor (Pino and de Roa 2003). The population is divided into ten patches totalling 700 adult plants and distributed across an area of 250 × 250 m in the marshland (central coordinates: 2°6′46′′E, 41°17′40′′N). Drainage of the surrounding cropping areas determines the ﬂooding periodicity of the lagoon, which only occurs for short periods of time throughout the year. Occasional ﬂooding does not seem to affect K. pentacarpa in terms of survival, growth or fecundity. Mean annual precipitation at Llobregat delta ranges between 500 and 550 mm. Demographic data were obtained from a total of 145– 268 individual plants monitored each year over nine years (1996–2004).The results showed that the Kosteletzkya pentacarpa population in northeast Spain had a trend for increasing dynamics over the nine years of study. In other words, K. pentacarpa is performing well at the Llobregat delta (Poan et al. 2007).
In Corsica, it is found in eight localities in six communes, with an estimated 12,000 individuals. Since the 1980s, two localities (about 20% of the French subpopulations) have been lost.
In Georgia it is only found at one location in Anaklia mire with 40-50 individuals (Matchutadze 2009). The total area of occupancy is less then 100 m2. The main threat here is habitat degradation and direct habitat destruction due to infrastructure development (harbour, oil terminal) in spite of the status of the area as National Park
The European populations are severely fragmented. High agricultural and urban pressures have caused the loss of many localities of the species over the last decades (Pignatti 1982), leading to a particularly vulnerable status in Europe. Habitat loss and degradation, due to drainage, pollution (for example related to the wine growing industry in France) and urbanization, are the main threats. Cleaning of beaches is also negatively impacting on its habitat. Abandonment of grazing, tourist activities and the impact of winter storms on fragile dunes are further threats.
High agricultural and urban pressures have caused the loss of many of localities in the last few decades (Pignatti 1982), leading to a particularly vulnerable species status in Europe. As a result, the species was catalogued as strictly protected in the Habitats Directive of the Council of the European Community (1992).. Habitat loss and degradation, due to drainage, pollution (for example related to the wine growing industry in France) and urbanization, are the main threat to this species. Cleaning of the beaches is also impacting negatively on its habitat. Abandonment of grazing, tourist activities and the impact of winter storms on fragile dunes are further threats. Specifically, in the Georgia Kolkheti lowland, habitat (Sphagnum mire) degradation due to infrastructure development is a threat. There is very low environmental public awareness. In ancient times, when Kosteletzkya pentacarpa and Hibiscus ponticus were still abundant and widespread, the strong stem fibres of these species were used for making ropes and nets. Furthermore glue was made from the root and oil from the seed was used for making paints and varnishes
Kosteletzkya pentacarpa is listed in Annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive and in Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natura l Habitats (Bern Convention). It is protected under Spanish national and regional (Catalonia), and French national legislation. It is considered as Vulnerable in France and Critically Endangered in the Italian Red List. The species is categorized as Data Deficient in Russia.
Kosteletzkya pentacarpa is included in natural and National parks in Spain, France and Italy. In France, all localities are either protected or under management by conservation organisations: one locality is a Réserve Naturelle, eight others are owned by the Conservatoire du Littoral. All French populations are monitored. Several ex situ conservation actions are conducted in France, Italy and Spain. In Georgia the habitat of Kosteletzkya pentacarpa has been officially protected in the Kolkheti National Park since 2002.
Ex situ conservation, population monitoring, creation of a genome resource bank and raising of public awareness are recommended.
Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya virginica), also known as Sweat weed, Virginia saltmarsh mallow, and Salt Marsh Mallow, is an herb found in marshes along the eastern seashore of the United States. This flowering plant is in family Malvaceae of the order Malvales. Researcher John Gallagher describes the pink-flowered seashore mallow as both a perennial and a halophyte, or salt-tolerant plant, that grows in areas where other crops can't. The plant can grow to above 1 metre in height, the leaves are 6–14 cm long and the flowers are 5–8 cm across. It blooms from July to October with pale to deep pink flowers.
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