Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual or short-lived perennial herb or soft shrub up to 1 m. Leaves grey-green, velvety with roughly toothed margins. Flowers in clusters, terminal at the stems and branches, yellow.
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Derivation of specific name

cordifolia: with cordate (heart-shaped) leaves
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: On Hill slopes
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Pantropical
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, S. Kanara Kerala: All districts"
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"Found along forest paths, wastelands, and forest clearings from plains to 900m. Common. Pantropical."
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Distribution: Common in tropical and subtropical countries.
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A pantropical weed.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In axillary or terminal, 1 or 2, rarely in lax racemes, yellow. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A schizocarp, enclosed within the calyx; mericarps 5, sparsely hairy at apex, beak 2-dentate; seeds ovoid, dorsal side hollowed. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Stem stellate-tomentose. Leaves palminerved, 7-nerved from base.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Cordate-ovate

Leaf Apex

Acuminate

Leaf Base

Cordate

Leaf Margin

Crenate-serrate

"
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Description

Subshrubs erect, ca. 1 m tall. Branchlets, stipules, petioles, and leaves densely stellate strigose; branchlets and petioles velutinous, hairs ca. 3 mm. Stipule filiform, ca. 5 mm; petiole 1-2.5 cm; leaf blade ovate, 1.5-5 × 1-4 cm, abaxially velutinous on veins, base minutely cordate or rounded, margin crenate, apex obtuse to rounded. Flower solitary or fascicled, axillary or terminal. Pedicel 5-15 mm, densely stellate pilose and with long hairs, articulate in distal part. Calyx cup-shaped, lobes triangular, 5-6 mm, densely stellate pilose and with long hairs. Corolla yellow, ca. 1.5 cm in diam.; petals oblong, 6-8 mm. Filament tube ca. 6 mm, hirsute. Schizocarp 6-8 mm in diam.; mericarps 10, with vertical grooves, apex 2-awned, awn 3-4 mm, exceeding calyx, retrorsely barbed. Seeds long ovoid, apex hairy. Fl. year-round.
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Description

Erect, velvety undershrub, 20-120 cm tall. Branches, petiole and pedicel stellate pubescent mixed with simple, spreading hairs. Leaves stipulate, stipule 2-6 mm long, filiform, stellate hairy; petiole 0.5-3 cm long, stellate tomentose; blade 1-4.5 cm long, 0.7-3.5 cm broad, usually ovate, some what orbicular, or lanceolate, rounded or slightly cordate at base, acute at apex, crenate to serrate, on bath surface stellate pubescent, also mixed with simple hairs on the nerves beneath, velvety. Flowers axillary, solitary or paired or more in terminal branches; pedicel 4-7 mm, in fruit up to 2 cm long, jointed near the top. Calyx 5-10 mm long, 5-8 mm across, densely stellate tomentose outside and mixed with simple, spreading hairs, fused to the middle; lobes triangular or deltoid, acute to acuminate. Petals yellow, slightly exceeding the calyx, obliquely obovate. Staminal column c. 3 mm long, hairy or glabrous. Fruit discoid, 5-8 mm across, stellate pubescent in the upper half, dehiscent; mericarps 9-10, reticulate, radially 3-3.5 mm long, c. 2.5 mm broad, dorsally 2-2.6 mm broad, slightly grooved; awns 2, divergent. 3-5 mm long, retrorsely hairy. Seeds brown to dark brown, flattened, c. 2 mm long and broad, glabrous except hilum.
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Elevation Range

500-1100 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A small subshrub, upto 60cm."
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Diagnostic

"Erect, branched subshrubs to 1.5 m tall; stem green, densely tomentose with minute stellate and spreading simple hairs. Leaves 1.5-5.5 x 1-3.5 cm, ovate, rarely suborbicular, base cordate, margins serrate to the base, apex subobtuse or acute, basally 3-5 nerved, densely stellate-tomentose beneath with simple hairs on nerves and soft tomentose above; petiole to 3.5 cm long, pubescent; solitary or aggregated terminally in to congested corymbiform inflorescence; pedicel to 3 mm long in flower, to 1.2 cm in fruits, articulated above the middle. Calyx 6-7 mm long, prominently 10-ribbed, densely tomentose without. Corolla c. 1 cm across, yellow; petals to 8 x 6 mm, obliquely obovate, apex truncate or slightly emarginate. Staminal column c. 3 mm long. Ovary subglobose, pubescent; styles 8-10; stigma capitate, yellow. Schizocarp 6-7 mm diam., pubescent towards apex; mericarps 8-10, to 3 x 2 mm, trigonous with acute angles, apically 2-awned. Seeds brownish or black."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Undershrub
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Synonym

Sida herbacea Cavanilles; S. holosericea Willdenow ex Sprengel; S. hongkongensis Gandoger; S. rotundifolia Lamarck ex Cavanilles.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Common along roadsides, sandy sea coasts and wastelands"
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General Habitat

Common on the roadside and slopes. Plains from the coast to 1000(1200)m. Pantropical.
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Habitat & Distribution

Scrub on slopes, grassy roadsides. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Africa, South America; ± pantropical].
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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: Throughout the year
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sida cordifolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Whole plant: Plant is boiled, and the water used as an herbal bath of for washing the skin as an anti-pruritic, as an anti-pyretic of for chickenpox and measles, by the Guyana Patamona. Leaf: Leaves are boiled, and the water drunk as an anti-pyretic, by the Guyana Patamona.

  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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Uses

"The plant is used in curing asthma by applying paste made with whole plant, pepper and garlic over the body."
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Folklore

Indigenous Information: The dried stems are tied into a bundle and used as broom.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Sida cordifolia

Sida cordifolia (bala, country mallow, heart-leaf sida or flannel weed) is a perennial subshrub of the mallow family Malvaceae native to India. It has naturalized throughout the world, and is considered an invasive weed in Africa, Australia, the southern United States, Hawaiian Islands, New Guinea, and French Polynesia.[1][2][3] The specific name, cordifolia, refers to the heart-shaped leaf.[2][4]

Description[edit]

S. cordifolia is an erect perennial that reaches 50 to 200 cm (20 to 79 in) tall, with the entire plant covered with soft white felt-like hair that is responsible for one of its common names, "flannel weed". The stems are yellow-green, hairy, long, and slender. The yellow-green leaves are oblong-ovate, covered with hairs, and 3.5 to 7.5 cm (1.4 to 3.0 in) long by 2.5 to 6 cm (0.98 to 2.36 in) wide. The flowers are dark yellow, sometimes with a darker orange center, with a hairy 5-lobed calyx and 5-lobed corolla.[2]

As a weed, it invades cultivated and overgrazed fields, competing with more desired species and contaminating hay.[5]

Medicinal use[edit]

S. cordifolia is used in Ayurvedic medicine (Sanskrit:-BALA).[6]

Known as "malva branca", it is a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa, blenorrhea, asthmatic bronchitis and nasal congestion,[7] stomatitis, of asthma and nasal congestion[8] and in many parts of Africa for various ailments, particularly for respiratory problems.[9] It has been investigated as an anti-inflammatory,[10][11] for preventing cell proliferation,[12] and for encouraging liver re-growth.[13] Due to its ephedrine content, it possesses psychostimulant properties, affecting the central nervous system and also the heart.[14]

Sida cordifolia flower

A 50% ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia tested on rats showed potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity comparable with the standard drug deprenyl.[15][non-primary source needed] The plant has demonstrated anti-pyretic and anti-ulcerogenic properties.[16][non-primary source needed] The aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia stimulates liver regeneration in rats.[17][non-primary source needed]

Phytochemistry[edit]

The following alkaloids were reported from S. cordifolia growing in India:[18] β-phenethylamine, ephedrine, pseudo-ephedrine, S-(+)-Nb-methyltryptophan methyl ester, hypaphorine, vasicinone, vasicinol, choline, and betaine.

No tannin or glycosides have been identified from the plant. The roots and stems contain the alkaloid ephedrine, normally observed in the different varieties of the gymnosperm genus Ephedra. Recent analyses have revealed that ephedrine and pseudoephedrine constitute the major alkaloids from the aerial parts of the plant, which also show traces of sitosterol and palmitic, stearic and hexacosanoic acids. The flavones: 5,7-dihydroxy-3-isoprenyl flavone (1) and 5-hydroxy-3-isoprenyl flavone (2), β-sitosterol and stigmasterol have been isolated from the plant.[19] The analgesic alkaloid (5′-Hydroxymethyl-1′-(1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-pyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-1-yl)-heptan-1-one) has also been found.[20] Sterculic, malvalic and coronaric acids have been isolated from the seed oil, along with other fatty acids (Chem. Ind. 1985. 483).[full citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Invasive and Noxious Weeds". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c William Thomas Parsons; Eric George Cuthbertson (March 2001). Noxious weeds of Australia. Csiro Publishing. pp. 511–. ISBN 978-0-643-06514-7. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  3. ^ C. W. Agyakwa; I. O. Akobundu (1998). A handbook of West African weeds. IITA. pp. 563–. ISBN 978-978-131-129-1. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  4. ^ "Sida cordifolia". Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). 2006-10-25. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  5. ^ Pitt, J. L. (03-01-2002). "Flannel Weed". Agnote (Northern Territory Government, Australia). ISSN 0157-8243. Retrieved 2010-07-18.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. ^ Pole, Sebastian (2006). Ayurvedic Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-443-10090-1. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  7. ^ Franzotti EM, Santos CV, Rodrigues HM, Mourão RH, Andrade MR, and Antoniolli AR. (2000). "Anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia L. (Malva-branca)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 72 273-7.
  8. ^ CNS pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Sida cordifolia L. leaves. Franco CI. Morais LC. Quintans-Júnior LJ. Almeida RN. Antoniolli AR. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 98(3):275-9, 2005 Apr 26.
  9. ^ Markus S. Mueller; Ernst Mechler (2005). Medicinal Plants in Tropical Countries: Traditional Use - Experience - Facts. Thieme. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-3-13-138341-9. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  10. ^ Franzotti, Em; Santos, Cv; Rodrigues, Hm; Mourão, Rh; Andrade, Mr; Antoniolli, Ar (Sep 2000). "Anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia L. (Malva-branca).". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 72 (1–2): 273–7. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00205-1. ISSN 0378-8741. PMID 10967481. 
  11. ^ Kanth, Vr; Diwan, Pv (Feb 1999). "Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities of Sida cordifolia". Phytotherapy research : PTR 13 (1): 75–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199902)13:1<75::AID-PTR387>3.0.CO;2-F. ISSN 0951-418X. PMID 10189958. 
  12. ^ Jenny, M; Schwaiger, W; Bernhard, D; Wrulich, Oa; Cosaceanu, D; Fuchs, D; Ueberall, F (Sep 2005). "Apoptosis induced by the Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2" (Free full text). Journal of carcinogenesis 4: 15. doi:10.1186/1477-3163-4-15. PMC 1232859. PMID 16138918. 
  13. ^ Silva, Rl; Melo, Gb; Melo, Va; Antoniolli, Ar; Michellone, Pr; Zucoloto, S; Picinato, Ma; Franco, Cf; Mota, Gde; Castro e Silva, Orlando de (2006). "Effect of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy" (Free full text). Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia. 21 Suppl 1: 37–9. doi:10.1590/S0102-86502006000700009. ISSN 0102-8650. PMID 17013511. 
  14. ^ Adam C. Munhall; Steven W. Johnson (January 2006). "Dopamine-mediated actions of ephedrine in the rat substantia nigra". Brain Research 1069 (1): 96–103. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2005.11.044. PMID 16386715. 
  15. ^ Antiperoxidative and antiinflammatory effect of sida cordifolia linn. on quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity Swathy S.S., Panicker S., Nithya R.S., Anuja M.M., Rejitha S., Indira M. Neurochemical Research 2010 35:9 (1361-1367)
  16. ^ Preliminary evaluation of anti-pyretic and anti-ulcerogenic activities of Sida cordifolia methanolic extract Philip B.K., Muralidharan A., Natarajan B., Varadamurthy S., Venkataraman S. Fitoterapia 2008 79:3 (229-231)
  17. ^ Effect of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Silva RL. Melo GB. Melo VA. Antoniolli AR. Michellone PR. Zucoloto S. Picinato MA. Franco CF. Mota Gde A. Silva Ode C. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira. 21 Suppl 1:37-9, 2006.
  18. ^ S. Ghosal, R. B. P. S. Chauhan, and R. Mehta (1975). "Alkaloids of Sidia Cordifolia." Phytochem. 14 830-832.
  19. ^ Bioactive flavones of Sida cordifolia Sutradhar R.K., Rahman A.K.M.M., Ahmad M.U., Bachar S.C. Phytochemistry Letters 2008 1:4 (179-182)
  20. ^ Bioactive alkaloid from Sida cordifolia Linn. with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities Sutradhar R.K., Matior Rahman A.K.M., Ahmad M., Bachar S.C., Saha A., Guha S.K. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2006 5:2 (175-178)
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Notes

Common Names

Guyana Patamona: qu-tuk-qua-tu-raie-yik, ka-dah-qua-du-rai-yik.

  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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Comments

In Pakistan it is common in Sind particularly in Tharparker district.
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