Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual or short-lived perennial herb or soft shrub up to 1 m. Leaves grey-green, velvety with roughly toothed margins. Flowers in clusters, terminal at the stems and branches, yellow.
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Derivation of specific name

cordifolia: with cordate (heart-shaped) leaves
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: On Hill slopes
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Pantropical
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, S. Kanara Kerala: All districts"
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"Found along forest paths, wastelands, and forest clearings from plains to 900m. Common. Pantropical."
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Distribution: Common in tropical and subtropical countries.
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A pantropical weed.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In axillary or terminal, 1 or 2, rarely in lax racemes, yellow. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A schizocarp, enclosed within the calyx; mericarps 5, sparsely hairy at apex, beak 2-dentate; seeds ovoid, dorsal side hollowed. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Stem stellate-tomentose. Leaves palminerved, 7-nerved from base.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Cordate-ovate

Leaf Apex

Acuminate

Leaf Base

Cordate

Leaf Margin

Crenate-serrate

"
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Description

Subshrubs erect, ca. 1 m tall. Branchlets, stipules, petioles, and leaves densely stellate strigose; branchlets and petioles velutinous, hairs ca. 3 mm. Stipule filiform, ca. 5 mm; petiole 1-2.5 cm; leaf blade ovate, 1.5-5 × 1-4 cm, abaxially velutinous on veins, base minutely cordate or rounded, margin crenate, apex obtuse to rounded. Flower solitary or fascicled, axillary or terminal. Pedicel 5-15 mm, densely stellate pilose and with long hairs, articulate in distal part. Calyx cup-shaped, lobes triangular, 5-6 mm, densely stellate pilose and with long hairs. Corolla yellow, ca. 1.5 cm in diam.; petals oblong, 6-8 mm. Filament tube ca. 6 mm, hirsute. Schizocarp 6-8 mm in diam.; mericarps 10, with vertical grooves, apex 2-awned, awn 3-4 mm, exceeding calyx, retrorsely barbed. Seeds long ovoid, apex hairy. Fl. year-round.
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Description

Erect, velvety undershrub, 20-120 cm tall. Branches, petiole and pedicel stellate pubescent mixed with simple, spreading hairs. Leaves stipulate, stipule 2-6 mm long, filiform, stellate hairy; petiole 0.5-3 cm long, stellate tomentose; blade 1-4.5 cm long, 0.7-3.5 cm broad, usually ovate, some what orbicular, or lanceolate, rounded or slightly cordate at base, acute at apex, crenate to serrate, on bath surface stellate pubescent, also mixed with simple hairs on the nerves beneath, velvety. Flowers axillary, solitary or paired or more in terminal branches; pedicel 4-7 mm, in fruit up to 2 cm long, jointed near the top. Calyx 5-10 mm long, 5-8 mm across, densely stellate tomentose outside and mixed with simple, spreading hairs, fused to the middle; lobes triangular or deltoid, acute to acuminate. Petals yellow, slightly exceeding the calyx, obliquely obovate. Staminal column c. 3 mm long, hairy or glabrous. Fruit discoid, 5-8 mm across, stellate pubescent in the upper half, dehiscent; mericarps 9-10, reticulate, radially 3-3.5 mm long, c. 2.5 mm broad, dorsally 2-2.6 mm broad, slightly grooved; awns 2, divergent. 3-5 mm long, retrorsely hairy. Seeds brown to dark brown, flattened, c. 2 mm long and broad, glabrous except hilum.
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Elevation Range

500-1100 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A small subshrub, upto 60cm."
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Diagnostic

"Erect, branched subshrubs to 1.5 m tall; stem green, densely tomentose with minute stellate and spreading simple hairs. Leaves 1.5-5.5 x 1-3.5 cm, ovate, rarely suborbicular, base cordate, margins serrate to the base, apex subobtuse or acute, basally 3-5 nerved, densely stellate-tomentose beneath with simple hairs on nerves and soft tomentose above; petiole to 3.5 cm long, pubescent; solitary or aggregated terminally in to congested corymbiform inflorescence; pedicel to 3 mm long in flower, to 1.2 cm in fruits, articulated above the middle. Calyx 6-7 mm long, prominently 10-ribbed, densely tomentose without. Corolla c. 1 cm across, yellow; petals to 8 x 6 mm, obliquely obovate, apex truncate or slightly emarginate. Staminal column c. 3 mm long. Ovary subglobose, pubescent; styles 8-10; stigma capitate, yellow. Schizocarp 6-7 mm diam., pubescent towards apex; mericarps 8-10, to 3 x 2 mm, trigonous with acute angles, apically 2-awned. Seeds brownish or black."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Undershrub
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Synonym

Sida herbacea Cavanilles; S. holosericea Willdenow ex Sprengel; S. hongkongensis Gandoger; S. rotundifolia Lamarck ex Cavanilles.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Common along roadsides, sandy sea coasts and wastelands"
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General Habitat

Common on the roadside and slopes. Plains from the coast to 1000(1200)m. Pantropical.
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Habitat & Distribution

Scrub on slopes, grassy roadsides. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Africa, South America; ± pantropical].
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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: Throughout the year
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sida cordifolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Whole plant: Plant is boiled, and the water used as an herbal bath of for washing the skin as an anti-pruritic, as an anti-pyretic of for chickenpox and measles, by the Guyana Patamona. Leaf: Leaves are boiled, and the water drunk as an anti-pyretic, by the Guyana Patamona.

  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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Uses

"The plant is used in curing asthma by applying paste made with whole plant, pepper and garlic over the body."
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Folklore

Indigenous Information: The dried stems are tied into a bundle and used as broom.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Notes

Common Names

Guyana Patamona: qu-tuk-qua-tu-raie-yik, ka-dah-qua-du-rai-yik.

  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).

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Comments

In Pakistan it is common in Sind particularly in Tharparker district.
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