Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Shrub, to 4 m. Leaves variable, from narrowly ovate to almost circular; entire, toothed or palmately lobed. Flowers solitary or in groups of 2-3 in the leaf axils, semi-pendulous; red, the petals remaining forward-pointing and not opening outwards.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Derivation of specific name

arboreus: tree-like
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Mexico to Peru and Brazil.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs ca. 1 m tall. Branchlets sparsely villous to glabrate, rarely glabrous. Stipule filiform, ca. 4 mm, usually caducous; petiole 2-5 cm, puberulent; leaf blade broadly cordate to ovate-cordate, usually 3-lobed, sometimes entire, 6-12 × 2.5-10 cm, nearly glabrous or stellate pilose on both surfaces, basal veins 3 or 5, base broadly cuneate to nearly rounded or cordate, margin crenate, sometimes irregularly so, apex acuminate. Flowers solitary, axillary, pendulous, tube-shaped, slightly expanding only at top, 2.3-5 cm. Pedicel 3-15 mm, villous or puberulent. Epicalyx lobes spatulate, 8-15 mm, connate at base, hairy. Calyx campanulate, ca. 1 cm in diam., lobes 5, slightly longer or shorter than bracteoles, hirsute. Petals 5, scarlet-red, 2.5-5 cm. Staminal column 5-7 cm, exceeding corolla tube. Style branches 10. Ripe fruit bright red, usually 3- or 4-seeded.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Hibiscus malvaviscus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 694. 1753; Achania malvaviscus (Linnaeus) Swartz; H. coccineus Walter, nom. illeg. superfl.; Malvaviscus coccineus Medikus, nom. illeg. superfl.
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Type Information

Isotype for Malvaviscus ulei Ulbr.
Catalog Number: US 1615346
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Ule
Year Collected: 1911
Locality: Rio Acre., Amazonas, Brazil, South America
  • Isotype: Ulbrich, O. E. 1915. Notizbl. Konigl. Bot. Gart. Berlin. 6: 328.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Malvaviscus lanceolatus Rose
Catalog Number: US 255578
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. W. Nelson
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Near Chicharras, Chiapas, Mexico, North America
Elevation (m): 1829 to 1829
  • Holotype: Rose, J. N. 1899. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 5: 175.
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Type collection for Malvaviscus rivularis Brandegee
Catalog Number: US 572029
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. S. Brandegee
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Cofradia River., Sinaloa, Mexico, North America
  • Type collection: Brandegee, T. S. 1905. Zoe. 5: 211.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Malvaviscus velutinus Triana & Planch.
Catalog Number: US 1480846
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. J. Triana
Year Collected: 1851
Locality: Bogota., Cundinamarca, Colombia, South America
  • Type fragment: Triana, J. J. & Planchon, J. É. 1862. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. 4. 17: 168.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Fujian (Xiamen), S Guangdong (Guangzhou), S Yunnan [native to Central and North America (SE United States); now widely planted in tropical and warm temperate regions, sometimes naturalized].
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Malvaviscus arboreus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Malvaviscus concinnus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Stem: Liniment made from the base of the plant is used for dressing burns.

  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.

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Wikipedia

Malvaviscus arboreus

Malvaviscus arboreus is a species of flowering plant in the hibiscus family, Malvaceae,[1] that is native to the Southeastern United States,[2] Mexico, Central America, and South America. The specific name, arboreus, refers to the tree-like appearance of a mature plant. It is now popular in cultivation[3] and goes by many English names including Turkcap, Turk's Turban, Wax Mallow, Ladies Teardrop and Scotchman's Purse. Its flowers do not open fully and help attract butterflies and hummingbirds.

Habitat and ecology[edit]

An example occurrence of M. arboreus is within the coastal Petenes mangroves of the Yucatán region of Mexico, in which plant community it is a subdominant species.[4] M. arboreus is the primary host plant for the caterpillars of the Turk's-cap White-Skipper (Heliopetes macaira).[5]

Varieties[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2002-07-16. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  2. ^ "Malvaviscus arboreus Dill. ex Cav. wax mallow". PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-12-16. 
  3. ^ Clay, Horace F.; James C. Hubbard (1987). Tropical Shrubs. University of Hawaii Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-8248-1128-0. 
  4. ^ World Wildlife Fund. eds. Mark McGinley, C.Michael Hogan & C. Cleveland. 2010. Petenes mangroves. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  5. ^ "Turk's-cap White-Skipper Heliopetes macaira (Reakirt, [1867])". Butterflies and Moths of North America. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  6. ^ "Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. var. drummondii (Torr. & A. Gray) Schery". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1999-03-23. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  7. ^ "Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. var. mexicanus Schltdl.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-04-01. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
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Notes

Common Names

French Guiana: calalou-diable, calalou diable.

  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.

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Comments

Chinese material is almost certainly to be referred to Malvaviscus arboreus var. arboreus. Malvaviscus arboreus var. drummondii (Torrey
& A. Gray) Schery, the name used by Feng (in FRPS 49(2): 50. 1984), is rarely cultivated. It differs from var. arboreus by the leaf blades being uniformly 3-lobed, with an obtuse (not acute) apex and strongly cordate (not truncate or cordate) base, and by the stem and petiole being diffusely pubescent with overlapping stellate hairs that form a velvety vestiture (not variously pubescent to glabrate).
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