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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This adventive species is an annual that forms a branching vine up to 3' in length. The stems have abundant white hairs. The alternate leaves occur on long petioles along the stems. The leaves are up to 2½" long and 3" across, while the petioles are about twice as long as the leaves. The palmate leaves are orbicular to kidney-shaped (reniform), with 5 or more shallow lobes, and a crenate margin. They are deeply indented at the base and often have short hairs across the upper or lower surface. Occasionally, a short flowering stalk (peduncle) about 1" long will occur above the leaf axils, each stalk producing 1-3 flowers. Each flower is about ¾" across and has 5 slightly notched petals. The petals are light violet or white, often with pale violet lines along their length. The green calyx has 5 lobes with ovate tips that are about one-half the length of the petals. In the center of the flower, there is a central reproductive column with single pistil and numerous stamens appressed together. In the absence of a major disturbance, the blooming period usually occurs during the summer and lasts about 2-3 months. However, some plants will bloom during late spring or early fall. Each flower is replaced by a fruit that has a wheel-like shape in which the flat seeds are aligned in a circular row. The outer edge of these seeds is often hairy. The root system consists of a taproot. This plant spreads by reseeding itself.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Comments

This is one of the weedy members of the Mallow family. Most mallows are erect perennial plants with large flowers, while Common Mallow is an annual vine with average-sized flowers. In open areas, it tends to form a mat of leaves and stems across the ground that can extend several feet. It has a similar appearance to another introduced species, Malva rotundifolia (Dwarf Mallow). The Dwarf Mallow has smaller flower petals that are only slightly larger than the lobes of the calyx, while the flower petals of the Common Mallow are twice the length of the calyx lobes. The Dwarf Mallow is less common in Illinois.
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© John Hilty

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Derivation of specific name

neglecta: overlooked
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The Common Mallow is occasional to common in most areas of central and northern Illinois, while in southern Illinois it is often uncommon or absent. Habitats include cropland, abandoned fields, farm lots, vacant lots, areas along roads and railroads, edges of yards, and gardens. Highly disturbed areas are preferred, while the invasive potential of this species to natural habitats is low. This species is adventive from Europe.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution in Egypt

Sinai (St.Katherine).

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Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Global Distribution

Europe, north Africa, west Asia.

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Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Malva neglecta Wallr.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Distribution: Worldwide but of Old World origin. Naturalized in America. In Pakistan it widely occurs from plains to 14000 ft.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Prostrate or decumbent, perennial, basally woody herb. Branches stellate pubescent, densely so on young parts. Leaves orbicular, deeply cordate at base, 1-3 (-4) cm long, 1-4(-6) cm broad, simple-stellate hairy above, stellate below, crenate, occasionally shallowly 5-lobed;stipules ovate-lanceolate,c.5mm long, c. 2 mm broad, scarious, margin ciliate; petiole 3-12 (-25) cm long, stellate; pubescent, dense so above, glabrescent below. Flowers axillary, generally 3 on 4 in fascicles, occasionally solitary, particularly on the lower branches; pedicel (0.5-) 1-3 cm long, stellate pubescent. Epicalyx segments linear to linear-lanceolate, stellate pubescent, 3-4 mm long, c.l mm broad. Calyx free to the middle, 5-8 mm long, stellate pubescent; lobes 3-5 mm broad, deltoid or triangular. Petals 10-13 mm long, 3-4 mm broad, oblong-obovate, retuse, claw hairy on the margin, purplish or pinkish. Stamina] column 5-7 mm long, pubescent. Fruit depressed, 5-6 mm across; mericarps 13-15, pubescent, smooth margin usually rounded, 1.5-2 mm across in all directions. Seed dark brown, pubescent, reniform, 1 mm long and broad.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The Common Mallow is occasional to common in most areas of central and northern Illinois, while in southern Illinois it is often uncommon or absent. Habitats include cropland, abandoned fields, farm lots, vacant lots, areas along roads and railroads, edges of yards, and gardens. Highly disturbed areas are preferred, while the invasive potential of this species to natural habitats is low. This species is adventive from Europe.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Common Mallow in Illinois

Malva neglecta (Common Mallow) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen; flies suck nectar or feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; Robertson listed this plant species as Malva rotundifolia, but it is more likely Malva neglecta; observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus sn, Bombus impatiens sn cp, Bombus vagans sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp fq; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada affabilis sn, Nomada articulata sn fq; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn, Osmia pumila sn; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn fq, Agapostemon virescens sn cp fq, Augochlora purus purus sn, Augochlorella aurata sn fq, Augochlorella striata sn fq, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn cp fq, Halictus ligatus sn, Halictus rubicunda sn cp, Lasioglossum coriaceus sn, Lasioglossum illinoensis sn, Lasioglossum imitatus sn fq, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn cp fq, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn, Lasioglossum truncatus sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes eulophi sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis sn cp np, Hylaeus mesillae sn, Hylaeus modestus modestus sn fq; Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn cp fq

Flies
Syrphidae: Toxomerus marginatus sn fp; Empididae: Empis distans sn; Conopidae: Zodion fulvifrons sn; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina sn; Fanniidae: Fannia manicata sn
Butterflies
Pieridae: Pieris rapae sn, Pontia protodice sn

Beetles
Melyridae: Collops quadrimaculatus sn

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Faunal Associations

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract primarily bees, including honeybees, bumblebees, Little Carpenter bees, Cuckoo bees (Nomadine), Mason bees, Green Metallic bees, and other Halictid bees. Other visitors of the flowers include miscellaneous flies and White butterflies, especially Pieris rapae (Cabbage White). The caterpillars of some Lepidoptera feed on mallows, including Anomis erosa (Yellow Scallop Moth), Pyrgus communis (Common Checkered Skipper), and the butterflies Strymon melinus (Gray Hairstreak) and Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady). The foliage is non-toxic and probably eaten by rabbits. Birds apparently make little use of the seeds.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Foodplant / gall
pulvinate telium of Puccinia malvacearum causes gall of live stem of Malva pusilla
Remarks: season: 4-11

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Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion radiolus feeds within stem of Malva neglecta

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion rufirostre feeds within fruit of Malva neglecta

Foodplant / gall
pulvinate telium of Puccinia malvacearum causes gall of live stem of Malva neglecta
Remarks: season: 4-11

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Malva neglecta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Malva pusilla

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The Common Mallow occurs in sunny places that are usually mesic to slightly dry. Growth is more luxuriant in fertile loamy soil, but it is adaptable to different soil types. During a drought, some of the lower leaves on the vine may wither away. This plant can survive irregular mowing or occasional attacks from a weed-whacker.
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Wikipedia

Malva pusilla

Malva pusilla, also known known as Malva rotundifolia, the Low Mallow, or the Round-leaved Mallow, is an annual and biennial herb species of the Mallow genus Malva in the family of Malvaceae. Malva is a genus that consists of about 30 species of plants. This genus consists of plants named mallows. Mallows grow in many regions, including temperate, subtropical, and tropical areas.[1]

Distribution[edit]

Malva pusilla is native to temperate and Mediterranean Europe, Turkey, Caucasia, and northwest Iran.[2] It is invasive to North America, Europe, and Korea.[3] In the United States, in can specifically be found in the states of California, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.[4]

"Invasive distribution of Malva pusilla in North America "

Habitat and ecology[edit]

Malva pusilla can be found widely in wastelands, grasslands, pastures, and by roadsides.[5] It is easy to grow in ordinary garden conditions in moist, fertile soil and a sunny setting. It is prone to predation by rabbits and infestion by rust fungus.[6]

Invasiveness[edit]

Mallows can be used as garden flowers. However, some species are considered weeds, especially in areas where they are not native. Malva pusilla grows rapidly as a weed in gardens and farmlands. It is considered hard to get rid of because of its long and tough taproots.[7]Among cultivated crops, it can be very competitive and it can spread very quickly.[8] Herbicide control options of this mallow are limited and not highly effective.[8]

Morphology[edit]

Malva pusilla stems can grow to a height of 4-20 inches. Malva pusilla leaves are attached alternately to the stem. Leaves have orbicular shape (widely triangular) with palmate venation and serrate margins. In the past, mallows were often referred to as cheesepants because the carpel is shaped similarly to a triangular wedge of cheese.[1]

Flowers and Seeds[edit]

The Malva pusilla flower consists of five petals of white, sometimes pale pink, color with pink venation. Petals and calyx are about the same length.[5] It has many stamens and the filaments are fused. Flowering begins in June and July and ends in September and October. Flowers bloom in groups of 2 to 5 at the base of the leaf stalks.[1] The flower’s nectar is located near the upper surface of the sepals. It is self-pollinating with the aid of insects.[1] The flowers are hermaphrodite, consisting of both female and male parts.[6] There are usually 8 to 12 seeds per flower that are arranged in a ring.[7] The tough seed coat enables it to remain dormant in the soil for up to 100 years. Seeds tend to germinate late in the springtime during temperatures of 15-20 degrees C (60-68 degrees F).[8]

Usage[edit]

Dyes[edit]

Dyes can be obtained from the Malva pusilla plant and seed heads, such as cream, yellow, and green. The root can also be used as a toothbrush.[6]

Food[edit]

Some species of mallows are eaten as a leaf vegetable. The leaves and seeds of Malva pusilla are edible. They have a mild and pleasant flavor that can be used in salads.[6]

Medicinal[edit]

Malva pusilla has medicinal uses. The leaves are demulcent,[6] which can be used as a soothing agent to relieve minor pain and membrane inflammation. They can used to treat inflammation of the digestive and urinary systems. The seed of the Malva pusilla can be used in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis, ulcers, and hemorrhoids. It can also be applied externally to treat diseases of the skin. Although there have been no indications of dangerous toxicity, the leaves of Malva pusilla can be highly concentrated in nitrates, which can be dangerous to animals.[6]

Cross hybridization[edit]

Extensive hybridization can be done within the Mallow genus Malva. A cross between Malva pusilla and Malva neglecta is Malva ×henningii. A cross between Malva pusilla and Malva sylvestris is Malva ×littoralis.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Dwarf Mallow". NatureGate. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Hinsley, Stewart R. "Malvaceae Info". Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  3. ^ "Malva pusilla". Invasive Species Compendium. CABI. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Low Mallow (Malva Pusilla)". Sagebud. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Garms, Harry; Wilhelm Eigener, A. Melderis, and Joyce Pope (1967). The Natural History of Europe All in Color. Paul Hamlyn. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Malva pusilla - Sm.". Plants for a Future. Retrieved October 19, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "Round-Leaved Mallow (N)". Weed Identification Guide. Government of Saskatchewan. Retrieved October 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c "Round-leaved Mallow". Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives. Manitoba. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
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Malva neglecta

Malva neglecta is also known as Common mallow in the United States and also buttonweed, cheeseplant, cheeseweed, dwarf mallow and roundleaf mallow.[2] Although often considered a weed, this plant is often consumed as a food.[3][4][5] This is especially true of the seeds, which contain 21% protein and 15.2% fat.[6] The plant is an invasive in the United States. [7]

Distribution[edit]

Native
Palearctic:
Macaronesia: Canary Islands
Northern Africa: Algeria, Morocco
Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia
Western Asia: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Sinai, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Syria, Turkey
Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
Soviet Middle Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Mongolia: Mongolia
China: Xinjiang
Indian Subcontinent: India, Pakistan
Northern Europe: Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
Middle Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
Southeastern Europe: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Montenegro, Sardinia, Serbia, Slovenia, Romania,
Southwestern Europe: France, Portugal, Spain

Source: [1]

Uses[edit]

Malva neglecta herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea or externally as baths for treatment of disorders of the skin, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1995-05-23). "Taxon: Malva neglecta Wallr.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-05-09. [dead link]
  2. ^ "Malva neglecta". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  3. ^ Facciola S. Cornucopia – A Source Book of Edible Plants. Vista, Ca. Kampong Publications, 1990. 677 p.
  4. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdGAUejE8BM&feature=channel_page
  5. ^ http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Malva+neglecta
  6. ^ Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Proximate Analysis Tables of Higher Plants. Boca Raton, Fl. CRC Press, 1986. 389 p.
  7. ^ Peterson, Roger Tory, and Margaret McKenny, A Field Guide to Wildflowers of Northeastern and North Central North America. 1968, p.32
  8. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine - An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs. J Ethnopharmacol.2013 Jun13. doi:pii: S0378-8741(13)00410-8. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23770053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770053
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