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Passiflora edulis

"Passionfruit" and "Passion fruit" redirect here. For other uses, see Passion fruit (disambiguation)

Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. Its common names include passion fruit (US), passionfruit (UK and Commonwealth), and purple granadilla (South Africa).

It is cultivated commercially in tropical and subtropical areas for its sweet, seedy fruit and is widely grown in several countries of South America, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, Southern Asia, Australia, Hawaii and United States.

The passion fruit is round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds.[1][2] The fruit is both eaten and juiced; passion fruit juice is often added to other fruit juices to enhance aroma.[3]

Varieties[edit]

Several distinct varieties of passion fruit with clearly differing exterior appearances exist.[1] The bright yellow flavicarpa variety, also known as the Golden Passion Fruit, can grow up to the size of a grapefruit, has a smooth, glossy, light and airy rind, and has been used as a rootstock for the Purple Passion Fruit in Australia.[1] The dark purple edulis variety is smaller than a lemon, though it is less acidic than the yellow passion fruit, and has a richer aroma and flavour.

Several varieties of passion fruit are rich in polyphenol content,[4][5] and yellow [Note 1] varieties of the fruit were found to contain prunasin and other cyanogenic glycosides in the peel and juice.[7]

Uses[edit]

Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw per 100 g
Purple passionfruit.jpg
A purple passion fruit
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy406 kJ (97 kcal)
23.38 g
Sugars11.2 g
Dietary fiber10.4 g
0.7 g
2.2 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(8%)
64 μg
(7%)
743 μg
Riboflavin (B2)
(11%)
0.13 mg
Niacin (B3)
(10%)
1.5 mg
Vitamin B6
(8%)
0.1 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
14 μg
Choline
(2%)
7.6 mg
Vitamin C
(36%)
30 mg
Vitamin K
(1%)
0.7 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
12 mg
Iron
(12%)
1.6 mg
Magnesium
(8%)
29 mg
Phosphorus
(10%)
68 mg
Potassium
(7%)
348 mg
Sodium
(2%)
28 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.1 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Across the world, passion fruit has a variety of uses related to its appealing taste as a whole fruit and juice.[1]

  • In Australia and New Zealand, where it is called "passionfruit", it is available commercially both fresh and tinned. It is added to fruit salads, and fresh fruit pulp or passion fruit sauce is commonly used in desserts, including as a topping for pavlova (a regional meringue cake) and ice cream, a flavouring for cheesecake, and in the icing of vanilla slices. A passionfruit-flavoured soft drink called Passiona has also been manufactured in Australia since the 1920s.
  • In Brazil, the term maracujá applies to passion fruit (maracujá azedo, or "sour") and granadillo (maracujá doce, or "sweet"). Passion fruit mousse is a common dessert, and passion fruit pulp is routinely used to decorate the tops of cakes. Passion fruit juice, ice pops and more recently soft drinks are also very popular. When making caipirinha, it is usual to use passion fruit instead of lime; it is then called maracujá. It is used also as a mild sedative, and its active ingredient is commercialized under several brands, most notably Maracugina.
  • In Colombia, it is one of the most important fruits, especially for juices and desserts. It is widely available all over the country and three kinds of "maracuyá" fruit may be found.
  • In the Dominican Republic, where it is locally called chinola, it is used to make juice and Fruit preserves. Passion fruit-flavoured syrup is used on shaved ice, and the fruit is also eaten raw, sprinkled with sugar.
  • In Indonesia, there are two types of passionfruit (local name: markisa), white flesh and yellow flesh. The white one is normally eaten straight as a fruit, while the yellow variety is commonly strained to obtain its juice, which is cooked with sugar to make thick syrup. Bottles or plastic jugs of concentrated syrup (generally produced in Sumatra from fruit grown in the Lake Toba region[citation needed]) are sold in many supermarkets. Dilution of one part syrup to four (or more) parts water is recommended.
  • In Israel, passion fruit is used to make fruit wine.[citation needed]
  • In East Africa, passion fruit is used to make fruit juice and is commonly eaten as a whole fruit.[8]
  • In Mexico, passion fruit is used to make juice or is eaten raw with chilli powder and lime.
  • In Paraguay, passion fruit is used principally for its juice, to prepare desserts such as passion fruit mousse, cheesecake, ice cream, and to flavour yogurts and cocktails.
  • In Peru, passion fruit is used in several desserts, especially cheesecakes. Passion fruit juice is also drunk on its own and is used in ceviche variations and in cocktails, including the Maracuyá Sour, a variation of the Pisco Sour.
  • In the Philippines, passion fruit is commonly sold in public markets and in public schools. Some vendors sell the fruit with a straw to enable sucking out the seeds and juices inside. It is not very popular because of its sour flavour, and the fruit is very seasonal.
  • In Portugal, especially the Azores and Madeira, passion fruit is used as a base for a variety of liqueurs and mousses.
  • In Puerto Rico, where the fruit is known as "parcha", it is used in juices, ice cream or pastries.
  • In South Africa, passion fruit, known locally as Granadilla (the yellow variety as Guavadilla), is used to flavour yogurt. It is also used to flavour soft drinks such as Schweppes' "Sparkling Granadilla" and numerous cordial drinks. It is often eaten raw or used as a topping for cakes and tarts. Granadilla juice is commonly available in restaurants. The yellow variety is used for juice processing, while the purple variety is sold in fresh-fruit markets.
  • In Sri Lanka, passion fruit juice, along with faluda, is one of the most popular refreshments. Passion fruit cordial is manufactured both at home as well as industrially by mixing the pulp with sugar. There are many cordial manufacturers, suppliers and exporters in the country.[9]
  • In Thailand, passion fruit is called "saowarot" (Thai: เสาวรส). The fruit is eaten whole and is also commonly juiced and drunk. Young shoots are cooked in curries or eaten with nam phrik.[citation needed]
  • In the United States, it is often used as an ingredient in alcoholic beverages[10][11] and juice mixes.
    • In Hawaii, passion fruit is called lilikoi and comes in yellow and purple varieties.
    Passion fruit can be cut in half and the seeds scooped out with a spoon. Lilikoi-flavoured syrup is a popular topping for shave ice. It is used as a dessert flavouring for malasadas, cheesecakes, cookies, ice cream and mochi. Passion fruit is also favoured as a jam or jelly, as well as a butter. Lilikoi syrup can also be used to glaze or marinade meat and vegetables.[12] Most passion fruit comes from backyard gardens or is collected from the wild. While it may be found at farmers' markets throughout the islands, fruits are seldom sold in grocery stores.
  • In Vietnam, passion fruit is blended with honey and ice to create refreshing smoothies.
  • In Cambodia, passion fruit is called "machu bey-darch", and the plant vine grows in the wild. Bushes hang with green to yellow round fruits, measuring from 2.5 cm to 4 cm when ripe. This wild variety of passion fruit tastes slightly different but is still quite sour.
  • In India, the government of Andhra Pradesh started growing passion fruits in the Chintapalli (Vizag) region forests to make them available to the local people. The fruit is found in the jungles of Assam and is known to local people as "lota bel".
  • In Costa Rica, it is known as "Estococa". The fruit grows in the wild and it is commonly used for juice. It is considerably smaller than the Maracuyá.

Nutrition[edit]

Fresh passion fruit contains provitamin A beta carotene, vitamin C (36%), dietary fiber (42%) and iron (12%) in significant quantities as percent of the Daily Value; the vitamin A content converted from provitamin A sources is 25%.[13] Passion fruit juice is a good source of potassium, possibly making the fruit relevant as a nutrient source for lowering risk of high blood pressure.[14] Preliminary research indicated that consuming passion fruit peel may relieve asthma symptoms.[15] One report showed that the fruit pericarp contains lycopene.[16]

Culture[edit]

Passion fruit flower - the national flower of Paraguay

The passion fruit is so called because it is one of the many species of passion flower, leading to the English translation of the Latin genus name, Passiflora.[1] The name was given by Spanish missionaries to South America as an expository aid while trying to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.

The flower of the passion fruit is the national flower of Paraguay.[17]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Specific mention of P. edulis f. flavicarpa juice and peel[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Morton JF (1987). "Passionfruit, p. 320–328; In: Fruits of warm climates". NewCrop, Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN, USA. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  2. ^ Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 168–171. 
  3. ^ "Passiflora edulis Sims". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2010-01-07. 
  4. ^ Talcott ST, Percival SS, Pittet-Moore J, Celoria C (2003). "Phytochemical composition and antioxidant stability of fortified yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis)". J Agric Food Chem 51 (4): 935–41. PMID 12568552. 
  5. ^ Devi Ramaiya S, Bujang JS, Zakaria MH, King WS, Shaffiq Sahrir MA (2013). "Sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in passion fruit (Passiflora) cultivars". J Sci Food Agric 93 (5): 1198–1205. doi:10.1002/jsfa.587. PMID 23027609. 
  6. ^ Chassagne D, Crouzet JC, Bayonove CL, Baumes RL (1996). "Identification and Quantification of Passion Fruit Cyanogenic Glycosides". J Agric Food Chem 44 (12): 3817–3820. doi:10.1021/jf960381t. 
  7. ^ Chassagne D, Crouzet JC, Bayonove CL, Baumes RL (1996). "Identification and Quantification of Passion Fruit Cyanogenic Glycosides". J Agric Food Chem 44 (12): 3817–3820. doi:10.1021/jf960381t. 
  8. ^ Ngotho A (October 30, 2012). "Passion fruit farming the next frontier in agribusiness". The Star, Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved July 16, 2014. 
  9. ^ Passion fruit cordial Faluda and Sri Lankan food - TasteSpotting
  10. ^ http://instagram.com/p/njkOCei_7y/
  11. ^ http://instagram.com/p/njeNfbhMO_/
  12. ^ The Lilikoilicious Cookbook
  13. ^ "Nutrition facts for Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw, 100 g". USDA Nutrient Data, SR-21. Conde Nast. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Oral administration of purple passion fruit peel extract attenuates blood pressure in female spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans | Industrial Research Ltd". Irl.cri.nz. 2012-07-23. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2007.05.004. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  15. ^ "Passion fruit peel ‘relief’ for asthmatics - Health news - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  16. ^ Mourvaki E, Gizzi E, Rossi R, Rufini S (2005). "Passionflower fruit — a "new" source of lycopene?". J Med Food 8 (1): 104–106. doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.104. PMID 15857218. 
  17. ^ "Paraguay: national flower". Paraguay.com. 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 

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