Derivation of specific name
Localities documented in Tropicos sources
Argentina (South America)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
French Guiana (South America)
Guyana (South America)
Paraguay (South America)
Suriname (South America)
United States (North America)
Venezuela (South America)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
Colombia (South America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- Forzza, R. C. & et al. 2010. 2010 Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100002289
- SPECIMEN BASED RECORD. Published protolog data. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/9990002
- Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1103
- Lawesson, J. E., H. Adsersen & P. Bentley. 1987. An updated and annotated check list of the vascular plants of the Galapagos Islands. Rep. Bot. Inst. Univ. Aarhus 16: 1–74. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/43197
- Renner, S. S., H. Balslev & L. B. Holm-Nielsen. 1990. Flowering plants of Amazonian Ecuador---A checklist. AAU Rep. 24: 1–241. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/43828
- Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/866
- Gentry, A. H. 2001. Passifloraceae. En: Stevens, W.D., C. Ulloa, A. Pool & O.M. Montiel (eds.), Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85(3): 1913–1922. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1029499
- Funk, V. A., P. E. Berry, S. Alexander, T. H. Hollowell & C. L. Kelloff. 2007. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1033072
- McVaugh, R. 2001. Ochnaceae to Loasaceae. 3: 9–751. In R. McVaugh Fl. Novo-Galiciana. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1019947
- Killip, E. P. 1938. The American Species of Passifloraceae [concl.]. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 19(2): 333–613. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/4066
- Standley, P. C. & L. O. Williams. 1961. Passifloraceae. In: P. C. Standley & L. O. Williams (eds.), Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(7/1): 115–146. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/6546
- Rodriguez. 2007. Passifloraceae. In: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. 6. B.E. Hammel, M.H. Grayum, C. Herrera & N. Zamora (eds.). Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 111: 862–891. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1032752
- Gibbs Russell, G. E., W. G. Welman, E. Reitief, K. L. Immelman, G. Germishuizen, B. J. Pienaar, M. v. Wyk & A. Nicholas. 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 2(1–2): 1–152(pt. 1), 1–270(pt. 2). http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1371
- Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. N. S. Stapf. 2004. Cat. Pl. Vasc. Panamá 1–599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1031911
- Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/42250
- Breedlove, D. E. 1986. Flora de Chiapas. Listados Floríst. México 4: i–v, 1–246. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/513
- Martínez Salas, E. M., M. Sousa Sánchez & C. H. Ramos Álvarez. 2001. Región de Calakmul, Campeche. Listados Floríst. México 22: 1–55. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1018508
- Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez & A. O. Chater. (eds.) 1994. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. Fl. Mesoamer. 6: i–xvi, 1–543. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/8200
- Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2007. Fl. China 13: 1–548. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1031194
- Holm-Nielsen, L. B., P. M. Jørgensen & J. E. Lawesson. 1988. 126. Passifloraceae. 31: 1–130. In G. W. Harling & B. B. Sparre (eds.) Fl. Ecuador. University of Göteborg and Swedish Museum of Natural history, Göteborg and Stockholm. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/26701
- Hokche, O., P. E. Berry & O. Huber. 2008. 1–860. In O. Hokche, P. E. Berry & O. Huber Nuevo Cat. Fl. Vasc. Venezuela. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, Caracas. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1033110
- Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100008595
- D'Arcy, W. G. 1987. Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Part 1: The introduction and checklist. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 17: v–xxx, 1–328. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1289
- García-Mendoza, A. J. & J. Meave del Castillo. 2011. Divers. Florist. Oaxaca 1–351. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100009052
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Insects whose larvae eat this plant species
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Passiflora edulis
Barcode data: Passiflora iodocarpa
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Passiflora iodocarpa
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Passiflora edulis
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and northern Argentina (Corrientes and Misiones provinces, among others). Its common names include passion fruit (US), passionfruit (UK and Commonwealth), and purple granadilla (South Africa).
It is cultivated commercially in warmer, frost-free areas for its fruit and is widely grown in Antigua, Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, the Caribbean, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, East Africa, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Panama, Peru, Portugal (Madeira), Puerto Rico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, United States (California, Florida, and Hawaii), Venezuela and Philippines.
The passion fruit is round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds. The fruit is both eaten and juiced; passion fruit juice is often added to other fruit juices to enhance the aroma.
Several distinct varieties of passion fruit with clearly differing exterior appearances exist. The bright yellow flavicarpa variety, also known as the Golden Passion Fruit, can grow up to the size of a grapefruit, has a smooth, glossy, light and airy rind, and has been used as a rootstock for the Purple Passion Fruit in Australia. The dark purple edulis variety is smaller than a lemon, though it is less acidic than the yellow passion fruit, and has a richer aroma and flavour.
|A purple passion fruit|
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||406 kJ (97 kcal)|
|- Sugars||11.2 g|
|- Dietary fiber||10.4 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||64 μg (8%)|
|- beta-carotene||743 μg (7%)|
|Riboflavin (vit. B2)||0.13 mg (11%)|
|Niacin (vit. B3)||1.5 mg (10%)|
|Vitamin B6||0.1 mg (8%)|
|Folate (vit. B9)||14 μg (4%)|
|Choline||7.6 mg (2%)|
|Vitamin C||30 mg (36%)|
|Vitamin K||0.7 μg (1%)|
|Calcium||12 mg (1%)|
|Iron||1.6 mg (12%)|
|Magnesium||29 mg (8%)|
|Phosphorus||68 mg (10%)|
|Potassium||348 mg (7%)|
|Sodium||28 mg (2%)|
|Zinc||0.1 mg (1%)|
|Link to USDA Database entry|
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
- In Australia and New Zealand, where it is called "passionfruit", it is available commercially both fresh and tinned. It is added to fruit salads, and fresh fruit pulp or passion fruit sauce is commonly used in desserts, including as a topping for pavlova (a regional meringue cake) and ice cream, a flavouring for cheesecake, and in the icing of vanilla slices. A passionfruit-flavoured soft drink called Passiona has also been manufactured in Australia since the 1920s.
- In Brazil passion fruit mousse is a common dessert, and passion fruit seeds are routinely used to decorate the tops of cakes. Passion fruit juice is also widely used. When making Caipirinha, it is usual to use passion fruit instead of lime; it is then called "caipifruta de maracujá". It is used also as a mild sedative, and its active ingredient is commercialized under several brands, most notably Maracugina.
- In Colombia it is one of the most important fruits, especially for juices and desserts. It is widely available all over the country and three kinds of "Maracuyá" fruit may be found.
- In the Dominican Republic, where it is locally called chinola, it is used to make juice and Fruit preserves. Passion fruit-flavoured syrup is used on shaved ice, and the fruit is also eaten raw, sprinkled with sugar.
- In Hawaii passion fruit is called lilikoi and comes in yellow and purple varieties.
- Passion fruit can be cut in half and the seeds scooped out with a spoon. Lilikoi-flavoured syrup is a popular topping for shave ice. It is used as a desert flavouring for malasadas, cheesecakes, cookies, ice cream and mochi. Passion fruit is also favoured as a jam or jelly, as well as a butter. Lilikoi syrup can also be used to glaze or marinade meat and vegetables. Most passion fruit comes from backyard gardens or is collected from the wild. While it may be found at farmers' markets throughout the islands, fruits are seldom sold in grocery stores.
- In Indonesia there are two types of passionfruit (local name: 'markisa'), white flesh and yellow flesh. The white one is normally eaten straight as a fruit, while the yellow variety is commonly strained to obtain its juice, which is cooked with sugar to make thick syrup. Bottles or plastic jugs of concentrated syrup (generally produced in Sumatra from fruit grown in the Lake Toba region) are sold in many supermarkets. Dilution of one part syrup to four (or more) parts water is recommended.
- In Israel passion fruit is used to make fruit wine.
- In Mexico passion fruit is used to make juice or is eaten raw with chilli powder and lime.
- In Paraguay passion fruit is used principally for its juice, to prepare desserts such as passion fruit mousse, cheesecake, ice cream, and to flavour yogurts and cocktails.
- In Peru passion fruit is used in several desserts, especially cheesecakes. Passion fruit juice is also drunk on its own and is used in ceviche variations and in cocktails, including the Maracuyá Sour, a variation of the Pisco Sour.
- In the Philippines passion fruit is commonly sold in public markets and in public schools. Some vendors sell the fruit with a straw to enable sucking out the seeds and juices inside. It is not very popular because of its sour flavour, and the fruit is very seasonal.
- In Portugal, especially the Azores and Madeira, passion fruit is used as a base for a variety of liqueurs and mousses.
- In Puerto Rico, where the fruit is known as "Parcha", it is widely believed to lower blood pressure, probably because it contains harmala alkaloids and is a mild RIMA. Passion fruit juice is also very common there and is used in juices, ice cream or pastries.
- In South Africa passion fruit, known locally as Granadilla (the yellow variety as Guavadilla), is used to flavour yogurt. It is also used to flavour soft drinks such as Schweppes' "Sparkling Granadilla" and numerous cordial drinks. It is often eaten raw or used as a topping for cakes and tarts. Granadilla juice is commonly available in restaurants. The yellow variety is used for juice processing, while the purple variety is sold in fresh-fruit markets.
- In Sri Lanka passion fruit juice, along with faluda, is one of the most popular refreshments. Passion fruit cordial is manufactured both at home as well as industrially by mixing the pulp with sugar. There are many cordial manufacturers, suppliers and exporters in the country.
- In Thailand passion fruit is called "Saowarot" (Thai: เสาวรส). The fruit is eaten whole and is also commonly juiced and drunk. Young shoots are cooked in curries or eaten with nam phrik.
- In the United States it is often used as an ingredient in juice mixes.
- In Vietnam passion fruit is blended with honey and ice to create refreshing smoothies.
- In Cambodia passion fruit is called "Machu Bey-darch", and the plant vine grows in the wild. Bushes hang with green to yellow round fruits, measuring from 2.5 cm to 4 cm when ripe. This wild variety of passion fruit tastes slightly different but is still quite sour.
- In India the government of Andhra Pradesh started growing passion fruits in the Chintapalli (Vizag) region forests to make them available to the local people. However, the fruit is found in the jungles of Assam and is known to local people as "Lota Bel."
- In Costa Rica it is known as "Estococa". The fruit grows in the wild, and it is commonly used for juice, it is considerably smaller than the Maracuyá.
Fresh passion fruit contains provitamin A beta carotene, vitamin C (36%), dietary fiber (42%) and iron (12%) in significant quantities as percent of the Daily Value; the vitamin A content converted from provitamin A sources is 25%. Passion fruit juice is a good source of potassium, possibly making the fruit relevant as a nutrient source for lowering risk of high blood pressure. Preliminary research indicated that consuming passion fruit peel may relieve asthma symptoms. One report showed that the fruit pericarp contains lycopene.
The Passion fruit is so called because it is one of the many species of Passion Flower. ("Passion Flower" being the literal English translation of the Latin genus name, Passiflora). The name was given by Spanish missionaries to South America as an expository aid while trying to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.
The flower of the passion fruit is the national flower of Paraguay.
- Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 168-171.
- "Passiflora edulis Sims". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- Reynhardt, Debbie (8 February 2003). "Gardening with Debbie Reynhardt". Dispatch Online (Dispatch Media (Pty) Ltd). Retrieved 2006-11-20.
- Chassagne, David; Crouzet, Jean C.; Bayonove, Claude L.; Baumes, Raymond L. (18 December 1996). "Identification and Quantification of Passion Fruit Cyanogenic Glycosides". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 44 (12): 3817. doi:10.1021/jf960381t.
- The Lilikoilicious Cookbook 
- "Make Choosing Good Food for High Blood Pressure an Easy and Exciting Experience". highbloodpressureinfo.org (Site Build It!). Retrieved 2010-08-13.
- Passion fruit cordial Faluda and Sri Lankan food - TasteSpotting
- "Nutrition facts for Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw, 100 g". USDA Nutrient Data, SR-21. Conde Nast. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "Oral administration of purple passion fruit peel extract attenuates blood pressure in female spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans | Industrial Research Ltd". Irl.cri.nz. 2012-07-23. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2007.05.004. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Passion fruit peel ‘relief’ for asthmatics - Health news - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Mourvaki E, Gizzi E, Rossi R, Rufini S (2005). "Passionflower fruit — a "new" source of lycopene?". J Med Food 8 (1): 104–106. doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.104. PMID 15857218.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Native to Brazil.