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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: In dry or moist disturbed areas at lower elevations. Also on Culebra, Mona, Vieques, St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas, and Tortola; common throughout the Neotropics.

Public Forests: El Yunque, Maricao, Mona, and Susúa

  • Killip, E. P., 1938. The American species of Passifloraceae. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 19: 1-613.

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"Very common along roadsides, thickets and water courses from plains to 750m. Native of tropical America, now widely naturalized the tropics."
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Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [native to the West Indies and N South America].
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Distribution: A native of tropical and South America, now naturalized in Tropical Africa, Pakistan, India, Ceylon, South-East Asia and China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

Solitary, axillary; white, fragrant. Flowering from November-May.

Fruit

A subglobose berry; orange when ripe; seeds many, ellipsoid, deeply pitted. Fruiting February onwards.

Field tips

Bracts and bracteoles deeply pinnatisect, glandular pubescent, totally cover the fruits.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate distichous

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Orbicular

Leaf Apex

Acute

Leaf Base

Cordate

Leaf Margin

Dentate

"
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Description

Herbaceous vines, foul smelling. Stem slender, striate, spreading pubescent. Stipules partly clasping, deeply parted, glandular pilose; petiole 2-6 cm, without glands, pubescent, indumentum dense, spreading, glandular pilose; leaf blade broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, (3-)4.5-13 × (2.5-)4-12 cm, membranous, glandular ciliate, abaxially pubescent with small nectaries in distal part, adaxially sericeous, mixed with occasional glandular hairs, base cordate, 3-lobed or unlobed, margin irregularly undulate, apex acute. Inflorescence reduced to a single flower, opposite tendril; bracts 3, 2- or 3(or 4)-pinnatifid; lobes threadlike, glandular pilose apically. Flowers white or light purple with white spots or lines, 2-3 cm in diam. Sepals ca. 1.5 cm, awned. Petals ca. 1.5 cm. Corona 3-5-seriate, filamentous, two outer series ca. 1 cm, inner three series 1-2.5 mm; operculum 1-1.5 mm, membranous; disk cupular, 1-2 mm high; androgynophore 5-7 mm tall. Stamens coherent at base, flat; anthers oblong, ca. 4 mm. Ovary shortly stipitate, ellipsoid, ca. 6 mm, glabrous; styles 3(or 4), 5-6 mm; stigmas capitate. Berry orange or orange-red, ovoid-globose, 2-3 cm in diam., glabrous. Seeds many, light brown to black, elliptic, 3-4 mm. Fl. Jul-Aug, fr. Apr-May of next year. 2n = 20.
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Description

Annual or rarely perennial herbaceous tendril climber. Stem and branches softly hispid. Leaves with 2-4 cm long, hispid, glandless petiole; lamina membranous, broad ovate, cordate or subcordate, 4-7 cm long, 3-5 cm broad, shallowly 3-lobed, lobes acute, with ciliate margins; stipules falcate, tripinnatisect, with gland tipped segments. Flowers solitary axillary, on up to 4 cm long peduncle, large with obnoxious odour, 4-6 cm across; bracts deeply tripinnatisect, segments filiform, gland tipped; hypanthium urceolate. Sepals 5, oblong, 2-2.5 cm long, white within, pale green without. Petals 5, oblong, as long as sepals, obtuse, mucronate, white. Corona multiseriate, purple to bluish purple. Stamens 5; anthers greenish yellow, c. 5 mm long. Ovary globose, somewhat pilose; styles clavate. Fruit ovoid-globose, c. 2 cm in diameter, orange yellow, glabrescent, enclosed by enlarged bracts.
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Diagnostic Description

Passiflora foetida L., Sp. Pl. 959. 1753.

Fig. 133. J-K

Slightly woody vine, glandular-pubescent, attainig 5 m in length and climbs by means of axillary tendrils. Viscid glandular hairs with a strong disagreeable odor. Stems cylindrical, slightly striate, glandular-pubescent. Leaves alternate, chartaceous, usually trilobate, with the central lobe longer than the lateral ones, or less frequently simple, 5-12 × 5-10 cm, both surfaces pubescent, the lobes elliptical to ovate, with the apex acute or acuminate, the base cordiform or subcordiform, the margins crenate-serrate; petioles slender, pubescent, 2-5.5 cm long, pilose, eglandular; stipules ovate in outline, pinnatifid; tendrils pubescent, simple, 15 cm or more in length. Flowers axillary, solitary or clustered in pairs or threes, subtended by an involucre of three pinnatifid bracts, 2-3 cm long, glandular-viscid; pedicels 4-4.5 cm long, pubescent. Sepals 5, oblong, green, whitish on the inner surface, 2-2.5 cm long, mucronate at the apex; petals white, oblong, 2-2.5 cm long; corona multiseriate, the segments filiform, 15-17 mm long, the innermost series with a violet band at the base; gynophore cylindrical, green, with reddish spots, ca. 7 mm long; stamens 5; ovary ellipsoid, green, sparsely pilose, the styles pilose, the stigmas capitate. Fruit a coriaceous or papery berry, ovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm long, orange when ripe, covered by the persistent bracts. Seeds numerous, oblong, truncate at both ends, foveate, ca. 5 mm long, covered by a yellow aril.

Phenology: Flowering and fruiting throughout the year.

Status: Native, very common.

Selected Specimens Examined: Acevedo-Rdgz., P. 772; 1948; 5186; 5333; 11229; Axelrod, F. 5050; Boom, B. 8008; Britton, N.L. 2244; Goll, G.P. 393; Heller, A.A. 978; 1029; 6119; Johnston, J.R. 225; Liogier, A.H. 9805; Sargent, F.H. 193; 573; Sintenis, P. 810; Underwood, L.M. 113; 346.

  • Killip, E. P., 1938. The American species of Passifloraceae. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 19: 1-613.

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Diagnostic

"Habit: A slender climbing shrub, to 8m."
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Synonym

Dysosmia foetida (Linnaeus) M. Roemer; Granadilla foetida (Linnaeus) Gaertner; Passiflora foetida var. hispida (Candolle ex Triana & Planchon) Killip; P. hispida Candolle ex Triana & Planchon; Tripsilina foetida (Linnaeus) Rafinesque.
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Type Information

Isotype for Passiflora foetida var. galapagensis Killip
Catalog Number: US 1712604
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. T. Howell
Year Collected: 1923
Locality: Post Office Bay, Floreana [Charles, Santa Maria], Galápagos Is., Colón, Ecuador, Archipiélago de Colón, South America
  • Isotype: Killip, E. P. 1938. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 19: 505.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: In Puerto Rico, this species occurs at medium to low elevations in more humid areas (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Woodbury 1985).

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Naturalized weed, grassy slopes, forest margins, roadsides, riverine beaches, occasionally cultivated; 100-1200 m.
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Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 0.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per.: July-August.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Chemistry

Leaf contains substance having possible antimicrobial activity.

  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Verpoorte, R., Tjin A Tsoi, A., Van Doorne, H. and A. Baerheim-Svendsen. 1982. Medicinal plants of Suriname. I. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 5(2): 221-226.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Barcode data: Passiflora foetida

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Passiflora foetida

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Passiflora foetida (which is comprised of many taxonomic varieties) is native to the New World from Arizona and Texas in the U.S.A. through the tropics to the Galapagos Islands; it has become widely naturalized in the Old World tropics.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Whole plant: Fresh plant is boiled and the liquid used as a children's anthelmintic, for intestinal nematodes and flatworms. Decoction of dried plant drunk to treat colds and chest coughs. Used in the treatment of tuberculosis, worms, and for coughs and colds in NW Guyana. Leaf: Infusion for healing wounds.

  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Verpoorte, R., Tjin A Tsoi, A., Van Doorne, H. and A. Baerheim-Svendsen. 1982. Medicinal plants of Suriname. I. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 5(2): 221-226.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Economic Uses

Comments: Fruit edible; leaves toxic. Weedy.

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Folklore

Indigenous Information: Fruits edible.
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Uses

Young leaves and plant tips are edible. Dried leaves are used in tea in Vietnamese folk medicine.
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Wikipedia

Passiflora foetida

Passiflora foetida (common names: wild maracuja, bush passion fruit,[1] marya-marya, wild water lemon,[2] stinking passionflower,[2] love-in-a-mist or running pop[2]) is a species of passion flower that is native to the southwestern United States (southern Texas and Arizona), Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, and much of South America. It has been introduced to tropical regions around the world,[2] such as Southeast Asia and Hawaii.[3] It is a creeping vine like other members of the genus, and yields an edible fruit.[4] The specific epithet, foetida, means "stinking" in Latin and refers to the strong aroma emitted by damaged foliage.[5]

Description[edit]

The stems are thin and wiry, covered with minute sticky yellow hairs. Older stems become woody. The leaves are three- to five-lobed and viscid-hairy. When crushed, these leaves give off a pungent odor that some people consider unpleasant. The flowers are white to pale cream coloured, about 5–6 cm diameter. The fruit is globose, 2–3 cm diameter, yellowish-orange to red when ripe, and has numerous black seeds embedded in the pulp; the fruit are eaten and the seeds dispersed by birds

P. foetida is able to trap insects on its bracts, which exude a sticky substance that also contains digestive enzymes. This minimizes predation on young flowers and fruits.[6] Whether or not it gains nourishment from its prey is uncertain, and it is currently considered a protocarnivorous plant.[7]

This passion flower tolerates arid ground, but favours wet areas. It is known to be an invasive species in some areas.[4]

Uses[edit]

The fruits are roughly the size of a ping pong ball, or kumquat, and contain a bluish-white pulp that is mildly sweet and delicately flavored. In the Philippines, the fruit of Passiflora foetida are known colloquially as marya-marya[8] ('Little Mary') and santo papa (due to its resemblance to the Pope's mitre). Young leaves and plant tips are also edible. Dry leaves are used in tea in Vietnamese folk medicine to relieve sleeping problems.

Passiflora foetida contains high levels of saponins and is used as a substitute for soap in the manufacture of (soap-free) detergents.[citation needed]

Animal Interactions[edit]

Passiflora foetida is a larval host and nectar source for the Gulf Fritillary (Agraulis vanillae). [9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alegre’s exotic culinary discoveries By Aissa dela Cruz
  2. ^ a b c d "Passiflora foetida L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-07-25. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  3. ^ Food Standards: Passiflora foetida
  4. ^ a b "Passiflora foetida (vine, climber)". Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group. 2006-03-23. Retrieved 2010-01-07. 
  5. ^ Nellis, David W. (1997). Poisonous Plants and Animals of Florida and the Caribbean. Pineapple Press Inc. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-56164-111-6. 
  6. ^ Radhamani, T R; L Sudarshana; Rani Krishnan (December 1995). "Defense and carnivory: Dual role of bracts in Passiflora foetida". Journal of Biosciences 20 (5): 657–664. doi:10.1007/BF02703305. 
  7. ^ "Carnivorous Plants / Insectivorous Plants". Botanical Society of America. Retrieved 2010-01-07. 
  8. ^ Flowers of Antique, Philippines
  9. ^ http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PAFO2
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Notes

Common Names

Guyana: baby-semitoo, mis-mis,semito, simatoo, wild semitoo. Surinam: snekimarkoesa, sneki markoesa.

  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Verpoorte, R., Tjin A Tsoi, A., Van Doorne, H. and A. Baerheim-Svendsen. 1982. Medicinal plants of Suriname. I. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 5(2): 221-226.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Comments

The Chinese material is rather uniform, and Killip’s infraspecific taxonomy (loc. cit. under genus heading) would key to Passiflora foetida var. hispida (Candolle ex Triana & Planchon) Killip ex Gleason.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Many varieties of this species have been described, and are variously accepted (recognized) in floristic works.

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