The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
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  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Akshatha, V., P. Giridhar, and G.A. Ravishankar. 2011. Morphological diversity in Bixa orellana L. and variations in annatto pigment yield. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 86(4): 319–324.
  • Aparnathi, K., R. Lata, and R. Sharma. 1990. Annatto (Bixa orellana L.): its cultivation, preparation and usage. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture 8: 80-88.
  • Biegel, H.M. (1977) Check-list of ornamental plants used in Rhodesian parks and gardens. Rhodesia Agricultural Journal. Research Report No. 3. Page 29
  • Bixaceae of North America Update
  • Bouvier., F.O. Dogbo, and B. Camara. 2003. Biosynthesis of the food and cosmetic plant pigment bixin (annatto). Science 300(5628): 2089-2091.
  • FAO. 1995. Natural Colourants and Dyestuffs. Non-Wood Forests Products. Volume 4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 122 pp.
  • Leal, F. and C.M. MichelangeliI de Clavijo. 2010. Annatto: a natural dye from the tropics. Chronica Horticulturae 50: 34-36.
  • Mahendranath, G., A. Venugopalan, R. Parimalan, P. Giridhar, and G.A. Ravishankar. 2011. Annatto pigment production in root cultures of Achiote (Bixa orellana L.). Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 106: 517–522.
  • Nisha, J., E.A. Siril, and G.M. Nair. 2012. Reproductive characterization and preliminary studies on controlled breeding of Annatto (Bixa orellana L.). Systematics and Evolution 298(1): 239-250.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Rodríguez-Ávila, N.L., J.A. Narváez-Zapata, M. Aguilar-Espinosa, and R. Rivera-Madrid. 2011. Regulation of Pigment-Related Genes During Flower and Fruit Development of Bixa orellana. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 29: 43–50.
  • Satyanarayana, A., P.G.P. Rao, and D.G. Rao. 2003. Chemistry, processing and toxicology of annatto (Bixa orellana L.). Journal of Food Science and Technology 40(2): 131-141.
  • Zamora, N.; González J. & Poveda, L. J. (en prep. ). 1999. Arboles y Arbustos del Bosque Seco de Costa Rica. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica.
  • Zamora, N.; Jiménez, Q. & Poveda, L. J. 2000. Árboles de Costa Rical Vol II. Centro Científico Tropical, Conservación Internacional & Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad. Ed. INBio. 374 p.


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