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Overview

Brief Summary

Cucumis sativus, the garden cucumber, is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon and cantaloupe. The cucumber likely originated in India, where it appears to have been cultivated for more than 3,000 years, then spread to China. The Romans likely introduced it throughout Europe. Hundred of cultivars of varying size and color are now grown in warm areas worldwide, commercially and in home gardens.

Cucumber is a frost-sensitive annual—its heat requirement is greater than that for most common vegetables, and in northern climates, it is often grown in greenhouses or hoop houses. It has a hairy climbing, trailing, or creeping stem, and is often grown on frames or trellises. Leaves are hairy and have 3–5 lobes; branched tendrils at leaf axes support climbing. Plants are usually monoecious (male and female flowers on separate plants), but varieties show a range of sexual systems. Female flowers are yellow with 5 petals, and develop into a cylindrical fruit, which may be as large as 60 centimeters (24 in) long and 10 centimeters (3.9 in) in diameter. The color ranges from green to yellow to whitish; in many varieties, fruits are bicolored with longitudinal stripes from stem to apex.

Some varieties produce seedless fruit without pollination, but others are most productive with pollination by various bee species. Hives of honeybees, Apis mellifera are often transported to cucumber fields just before flowering time, but bumblebees (Bombus spp.) and other bee species can also serve as pollinators.

The numerous varieties of cucumbers have been categorized in diverse ways. One general classification is to group them as “slicing,” which are large and smooth- but somewhat tough-skinned and generally eaten when green to avoid a bitter flavor; “pickling,” which are usually smaller, with prickly skins; and "burpless,” which include seedless varieties as well as long, narrow, Asian types.

When mature, the cucumber fruit is 90% water, and is not particularly high in nutrients, but its flavor and texture have made it popular for use as a fresh addition to salads, as well as pickled and prepared in relishes. In Africa, cucumber seeds are used to make an oil for use in salads and cooking. Cucumbers are also used in skin tonics and other beauty aids.

In 2009, total production of cucumbers and gherkins (which can refer to a cucumber variety but also to fruit of the related Cucumis anguria) was 60.6 million tons, harvested from 2 million hectares. China was by far the largest producer, with a harvest of 44.3 million tons; Turkey, Iran, and the Russian Federation followed, producing 1–2 millon tons, and the U.S. ranked 5th, with 888 thousand tons. Within the U.S., Florida, California, Georgia, and Michigan are generally leading producers.

(Encyclopedia Britannica 1993, FAOSTAT 2011, Hedrick 1919, Kirkbride 1993, Whittaker and Davis 1962, Wikipedia 2011)

  • Encyclopedia Brittanica. 1993. “Cucumber.” Micropedia 3: 776–7. Chicago: Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc.
  • FAOSTAT. 2011. FAOSTAT 2011. Searchable online database from Food and Agriculture Division of the United Nations. Retrieved 20 November 2011 from http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor.
  • Hedrick, U.P. 1919. Sturtevant’s Notes on Edible Plants. State of New York, Dept. of Agriculture, 27th Annual Report, Vol 2., Part II. Albany, NY. Available online from GoogleBooks: http://books.google.com.
  • Kirkbride, J.H., Jr. 1993. Biosystematic Monograph of the Genus Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae). Boone, NC: Parkway Publishers. 159 p.
  • Whittaker, T.S., and G.N. Davis. 1962. Cucurbits: Botany, Cultivation, and Utilization. 1962. New York: Interscience Publishers. 249 p.
  • Wikipedia. 2011. "Cucumber." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 31 Oct 2011, 09:37 UTC. 14 Nov 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cucumber&oldid=460565145.
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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Cultivated, Native of Himalaya"
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Derivation of specific name

sativus: cultivated, not wild
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Ahemdnagar, Nasik, Pune, Raigad, Satara Karnataka: Mysore Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts"
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Distribution: Cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual, trailing or climbing herb. Stem angular, with scabridulous hairs. Leaves ovate, 12-18 cm long., 3-8-lobed,-lobes acute, hispidulous or scabridulous on both surfaces; petiole elongated, 8-20 mm long. Sepals spreading. Corolla c. 2.5 cm long, lobes oblong-lanceolate. Anthers 3-4 mm long. Female flowers solitary or rarely fascicled. Ovary fusiform, muricate. Fruit oblong and obscurely trigonous or cylindric, when young sparsely tuberculated, otherwise smooth and glabrous.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Climber
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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Alternaria dematiaceous anamorph of Alternaria cucumerina causes spots on live leaf of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis gossypii sucks sap of live, distorted leaf of Cucumis sativus
Remarks: season: mainly under glass

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Cladosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Cladosporium cucumerinum infects and damages live, gummy lesioned fruit (young) of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / pathogen
pycnidium of Colletotrichum coelomycetous anamorph of Colletotrichum lagenarium infects and damages live fruit of Cucumis sativus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
acervulus of Colletotrichum coelomycetous anamorph of Colletotrichum orbiculare infects and damages live fruit of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / pathogen
effuse colony of Corynespora dematiaceous anamorph of Corynespora cassiicola infects and damages live fruit of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / pathogen
live, distorted leaf of Cucumber Green Mottle virus infects and damages Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / pathogen
Cucumber Mosaic virus infects and damages live, reduced in number fruit of Cucumis sativus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
linearly arranged pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe melonis infects and damages live fruit (rind) of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / spot causer
erumpent pseudothecium of Didymella bryoniae causes spots on live leaf of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Erwinia carotovora infects and damages soft, wet, rotten stem (near base) of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces orontii parasitises live Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Lacanobia oleracea grazes on live leaf of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza bryoniae mines leaf of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / gall
Meloidogyne causes gall of root of Cucumis sativus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Meloidogyne incognita causes gall of root of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / pathogen
conidioma of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis sclerotioides infects and damages live root of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta cucurbitacearum causes spots on live leaf of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera ferruginea parasitises Cucumis sativus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans infects and damages live, eventually rotting fruit of Cucumis sativus

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Pseudoperonospora cubensis parasitises live Cucumis sativus

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per.: Almost throughout the year.
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Leaves disorient beetles, prevent attack: cucumber
 

The leaves of cucumbers prevent infestation by beetles by releasing a chemical that mimics that of female beetles, disorienting the males.

       
  "Under normal conditions, for example, a young cucumber plant can disorient many of the small beetles that live on its leaves. The male beetles need to find mates at one time or another in the summer and, being short-sighted, they do so by sniffing for the distinctive chemical cloud which a female of their species produces. A healthy cucumber--one that's well spaced from its fellow plants---is quite capable of producing a cunning duplicate of that chemical. It sprays the stuff out all around the male beetle. The insect turns about in place, desperately trying to find the true location of its mate in the rising haze. The male fails to find her, or at least gets delayed, and the cucumber is less likely to be chewed by hordes of baby beetles." (Bodanis 1992:81)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Bodanis, D. 1992. The Secret Garden: Dawn to Dusk in the Astonishing Hidden World of the Garden. Simon & Schuster. 187 p.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cucumis sativus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cucumis sativus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

Cucumber

This article is about the fruit. For other uses, see Cucumber (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Armenian cucumber.

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine that bears cylindrical fruits that are used as culinary vegetables. There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing, pickling, and burpless. Within these varieties, several different cultivars have emerged. The cucumber is originally from Southern Asia, but now grows on most continents. Many different varieties are traded on the global market.

Description[edit]

Cucumber, with peel, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy65 kJ (16 kcal)
3.63 g
Sugars1.67
Dietary fiber0.5 g
0.11 g
0.65 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(2%)
0.027 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.033 mg
Niacin (B3)
(1%)
0.098 mg
(5%)
0.259 mg
Vitamin B6
(3%)
0.04 mg
Folate (B9)
(2%)
7 μg
Vitamin C
(3%)
2.8 mg
Vitamin K
(16%)
16.4 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(2%)
16 mg
Iron
(2%)
0.28 mg
Magnesium
(4%)
13 mg
Manganese
(4%)
0.079 mg
Phosphorus
(3%)
24 mg
Potassium
(3%)
147 mg
Sodium
(0%)
2 mg
Zinc
(2%)
0.2 mg
Other constituents
Water95.23
Fluoride1.3 µg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant has large leaves that form a canopy over the fruit. The fruit of the cucumber is roughly cylindrical, elongated with tapered ends, and may be as large as 60 centimeters (24 in) long and 10 centimeters (3.9 in) in diameter. Having an enclosed seed and developing from a flower, botanically speaking, cucumbers are classified as accessory fruits. Much like tomatoes and squash they are often also perceived, prepared and eaten as vegetables. Cucumbers are usually more than 90% water.

Flowering and pollination[edit]

A few cultivars of cucumber are parthenocarpic, the blossoms creating seedless fruit without pollination. Pollination for these cultivars degrades the quality. In the United States, these are usually grown in greenhouses, where bees are excluded. In Europe, they are grown outdoors in some regions, and bees are excluded from these areas.

Most cucumber cultivars, however, are seeded and require pollination. Thousands of hives of honey bees are annually carried to cucumber fields just before bloom for this purpose. Cucumbers may also be pollinated by bumblebees and several other bee species. Most cucumbers that require pollination are self-incompatible, so pollen from a different plant is required to form seeds and fruit.[1] Some self-compatible cultivars exist that are related to the 'Lemon' cultivar.[1] Symptoms of inadequate pollination include fruit abortion and misshapen fruit. Partially pollinated flowers may develop fruit that are green and develop normally near the stem end, but are pale yellow and withered at the blossom end.

Traditional cultivars produce male blossoms first, then female, in about equivalent numbers. Newer gynoecious hybrid cultivars produce almost all female blossoms. They may have a pollenizer cultivar interplanted, and the number of beehives per unit area is increased, but temperature changes induce male flowers even on these plants, which may be sufficient for pollination to occur.[1]

Insecticide applications for insect pests must be done very carefully to avoid killing off the insect pollinators.

Cucumber, whole and in longitudinal section

Genome[edit]

Genomic information
 NCBI genome ID  1639
 Ploidy  diploid
 Genome size  323.99 Mb


 Sequenced organelle  mitochondrion
 Organelle size  244.82 Mb
 Year of completion  2011

In 2009, an international team of researchers announced they had sequenced the cucumber genome.[2]

Production[edit]

Top ten cucumber producers in 2010
CountryProduction (tonnes)
 China40,709,556
 Iran1,811,630
 Turkey1,739,190
 Russia1,161,870
 United States883,360
 Ukraine860,100
 Spain682,900
 Egypt631,408
 Japan587,800
 Indonesia547,141
 World57,559,836
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[3]

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, China produced at least 60% of the global output of cucumbers in 2005, followed at a distance by Turkey, Russia, Iran and the United States.

Cultivation[edit]

History[edit]

The cucumber originated in India, where a great many varieties have been observed,[4][5][6] from Cucumis hystrix.[4][7] It has been cultivated for at least 3,000 years, and was probably introduced to other parts of Europe by the Greeks or Romans. Records of cucumber cultivation appear in France in the 9th century, England in the 14th century, and in North America by the mid-16th century.

Earliest cultivation[edit]

An Indian yellow cucumber

The cucumber is listed among the foods of ancient Ur, and the legend of Gilgamesh describes people eating cucumbers. Some sources[who?] also state it was produced in ancient Thrace, and it is certainly part of modern cuisine in Bulgaria and Turkey, parts of which make up that ancient state. Cucumbers are mentioned in the Bible as one of the foods eaten by the Israelites in Egypt.[8] From India, it spread to Greece (where it was called "σίκυον", síkyon) and Italy (where the Romans were especially fond of the crop), and later into China.

Robert Daniel, in discussing an ostracon dated to the second half of the third century AD, has suggested identifying an otherwise unknown word, ολγιττα, with the Arabic al-qitta', the common word for cucumber.[9]

According to Pliny the Elder (The Natural History, Book XIX, Chapter 23), the Ancient Greeks grew cucumbers, and there were different varieties in Italy, Africa, and Moesia.

Roman Empire[edit]

According to Pliny, the Emperor Tiberius had the cucumber on his table daily during summer and winter. The Romans reportedly used artificial methods (similar to the greenhouse system) of growing to have it available for his table every day of the year. "Indeed, he was never without it; for he had raised beds made in frames upon wheels, by means of which the cucumbers were moved and exposed to the full heat of the sun; while, in winter, they were withdrawn, and placed under the protection of frames glazed with mirrorstone."[10]

Reportedly, they were also cultivated in cucumber houses glazed with oiled cloth known as “specularia”.[citation needed]

Pliny the Elder describes the Italian fruit as very small, probably like a gherkin, describing it as a wild cucumber considerably smaller than the cultivated one. Pliny also describes the preparation of a medication known as elaterium, though some scholars[who?] believe he was referring to Ecballium elaterium, known in pre-Linnean times as "Cucumis silvestris" or "Cucumis asininus" ("wild cucumber" or "donkey cucumber"), a species different from the common cucumber.[11] Pliny also writes about several other varieties of cucumber, including the cultivated cucumber,[12] and remedies from the different types (9 from the cultivated, 5 from the "anguine", and 26 from the "wild"). The Romans are reported to have used cucumbers to treat scorpion bites, bad eyesight, and to scare away mice. Wives wishing for children wore them around their waists. They were also carried by midwives, and thrown away when the child was born.[citation needed]

Middle Ages[edit]

Charlemagne had cucumbers grown in his gardens in the 8th/9th century. They were reportedly introduced into England in the early 14th century, lost, then reintroduced approximately 250 years later. The Spaniards (through the Italian Christopher Columbus) brought cucumbers to Haiti in 1494. In 1535, Jacques Cartier, a French explorer, found “very great cucumbers” grown on the site of what is now Montreal.

Post-enlightenment[edit]

Throughout the 16th century, European trappers, traders, bison hunters, and explorers bartered for the products of American Indian agriculture. The tribes of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains learned from the Spanish how to grow European crops. The best farmers on the Great Plains were the Mandan Indians in what is now North and South Dakota. They obtained cucumbers and watermelons from the Spanish, and added them to the crops they were already growing, including several varieties of corn and beans, pumpkins, squash, and gourd plants. The Iroquois were also growing them when the first Europeans visited them.

In 1630, the Reverend Francis Higginson produced a book called New England’s Plantation in which, describing a garden on Conant’s Island in Boston Harbor known as The Governor’s Garden, he states: “The countrie aboundeth naturally with store of roots of great varietie and good to eat. Our turnips, parsnips, and carrots are here both bigger and sweeter than is ordinary to be found in England. Here are store of pompions, cowcumbers, and other things of that nature which I know not...”

William Wood also published in 1633’s New England Prospect (published in England) observations he made in 1629 in America: “The ground affords very good kitchin gardens, for Turneps, Parsnips, Carrots, Radishes, and Pompions, Muskmillons, Isquoter-squashes, coucumbars, Onyons, and whatever grows well in England grows as well there, many things being better and larger.”

In the later 17th century, a prejudice developed against uncooked vegetables and fruits. A number of articles in contemporary health publications stated that uncooked plants brought on summer diseases and should be forbidden to children. The cucumber kept this vile reputation for an inordinate period of time: “fit only for consumption by cows,” which some believe is why it gained the name, cowcumber.

A copper etching made by Maddalena Bouchard between 1772 and 1793 shows this plant to have smaller, almost bean-shaped fruits, and small yellow flowers. The small form of the cucumber is figured in Herbals of the 16th century, but states, "If hung in a tube while in blossom, the Cucumber will grow to a most surprising length."

Samuel Pepys wrote in his diary on August 22, 1663:[13] “this day Sir W. Batten tells me that Mr. Newburne is dead of eating cowcumbers, of which the other day I heard of another, I think.” In "The Greenstone Door", William Satchell notes that "Te Moanaroa was dead – of a surfeit of cucumbers...", having eaten four of the "prickly" melons. (Chapter XX, The Storm Cloud).

Varieties[edit]

In human cultivation, the varieties of cucumbers are classified into three main varieties: "slicing", "pickling", and "burpless".

Slicing[edit]

Slicing cucumbers

Cucumbers grown to eat fresh are called slicing cucumbers. They are mainly eaten in the unripe green form, since the ripe yellow form normally becomes bitter and sour. Slicers grown commercially for the North American market are generally longer, smoother, more uniform in color, and have a much tougher skin. Slicers in other countries are smaller and have a thinner, more delicate skin. Smaller slicing cucumbers can also be pickled.

Pickling[edit]

Pickling cucumbers
Main article: Pickled cucumber

Cucumbers can be pickled for flavor and longer shelf-life. Although any cucumber can be pickled, commercial pickles are made from cucumbers specially bred for uniformity of length-to-diameter ratio and lack of voids in the flesh. Those cucumbers intended for pickling, called picklers, grow to about 7 cm (3 in) to 10 cm (4 in) long and 2.5 cm (1 in) wide. Compared to slicers, picklers tend to be shorter, thicker, less regularly shaped, and have bumpy skin with tiny white or black-dotted spines. They are never waxed. Color can vary from creamy yellow to pale or dark green. Pickling cucumbers are sometimes sold fresh as “Kirby” or “Liberty” cucumbers. The pickling process removes or degrades much of the nutrient content, especially that of vitamin C.[citation needed] Pickled cucumbers are soaked in brine or a combination of vinegar and brine, although not vinegar alone, often along with various spices. Pickled cucumbers are called "pickles" in the US or "gherkins" or "wallies" in the UK, the latter name being more common in the north of England, where it refers to the large vinegar-pickled cucumbers commonly sold in fish and chip shops. (Although the gherkin is of the same species as the cucumber, it is of a completely different cultivar.)

Burpless[edit]

Isfahan burpless cucumber originally from Iran

Burpless cucumbers are sweeter and have a thinner skin than other varieties of cucumber, and are reputed to be easy to digest and to have a pleasant taste. They can grow as long as 2 feet (0.61 m). They are nearly seedless, and have a delicate skin. Most commonly grown in greenhouses, these parthenocarpic cucumbers are often found in grocery markets, shrink-wrapped in plastic. They are sometimes marketed as seedless or burpless, because the seeds and skin of other varieties of cucumbers are said to give some people gas.[14]

Several varietals exist and are sold commercially:

'Dosakai' is a round, yellow, cucumber seen at a market in Guntur, India
  • Lebanese cucumbers are small, smooth-skinned and mild, yet with a distinct flavor and aroma. Like the English cucumber, Lebanese cucumbers are nearly seedless.
  • East Asian cucumbers are mild, slender, deep green, and have a bumpy, ridged skin. They can be used for slicing, salads, pickling, etc., and are available year-round. They are usually burpless as well.
  • Persian cucumber, which are mini, seedless, and slightly sweet, are available from Canada during the summer, and all year-round in the US. Easy to cut and peel, it is on average 4–7 in. long. They are commonly eaten chopped up in plain yogurt with mint or sliced thin and long with salt and lemon juice. Vines are parthenocarpic, requiring no pollinators for fruit set.
  • Beit Alpha cucumbers are small, sweet parthenocarpic cucumbers adapted to the dry climate of the Middle East.
  • Apple cucumbers are short, round cucumbers grown in New Zealand and parts of Europe, known for their light yellow-green color and mildly sweet flavor. When mature, the fruit may grow tiny spines, and contains numerous edible green seeds. The fruit is usually eaten raw, with skin.[15]
  • Schälgurken are eaten in Germany. Their thick skins are peeled and then they braised or fried, often with minced meat or dill. They are often known by the term 'Schmorgurken'.
  • Dosakai is a yellow cucumber available in parts of India. These fruits are generally spherical in shape. It is commonly cooked as curry, added in sambar or soup, daal and also in making dosa-aavakaaya (Indian pickle) and chutney; it is also grown and available through farms in Central California.
  • Kekiri is a smooth skinned cucumber, relatively hard, and not used for salads. It is cooked as spicy curry. It is found in dry zone of Sri Lanka. It becomes orange colored when the fruit is matured.
  • In May 2008, British supermarket chain Sainsbury's unveiled the 'c-thru-cumber', a thin-skinned variety that reportedly does not require peeling.[16]

Armenian[edit]

  • Armenian cucumbers (also known as yard long cucumbers) are fruits produced by the plant Cucumis melo var. flexuosus. This is not the same species as the common cucumber (Cucumis sativus) although it is closely related. Armenian cucumbers have very long, ribbed fruit with a thin skin that does not require peeling, but are actually an immature melon. This is the variety sold in Middle Eastern markets as "pickled wild cucumber".[17] In North America, the term "wild cucumber" also refers to plants in the genus Marah.

Taste[edit]

The human olfactory response to cucumbers appear to vary. Most people report a mild, almost watery flavor or a light melon taste, while a small but vocal minority report a highly repugnant taste—some say almost perfume-like.[18] Cucumbers vary in bitterness, even from the same plant. This bitter taste is attributed to the chemical compound Cucurbitacin C. Cucurbitacin is poisonous to livestock, especially sheep.[19]

In the news[edit]

In May 2011, cucumbers infected with E. coli were claimed to have caused the deaths of at least ten people, leading to some retailers withdrawing cucumbers from sale in Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic.[20] The cucumbers were initially thought to have come from Spain. However, subsequent testing failed to show contamination in imported Spanish cucumbers, which led to the Spanish Government demanding compensation for Spanish farmers who had been forced to destroy huge quantities of cucumbers.[21]

After the outbreak, the World Health Organization stated that it was a completely new strain of the bacteria involved.[22]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Nonnecke, I.L. (1989). Vegetable Production. Springer. ISBN 9780442267216. 
  2. ^ Huang, S.; Li, R.; Zhang, Z.; Li, L.; Gu, X.; Fan, W.; Lucas, W.; Wang, X.; Xie, B.; Ni, P.; Ren, Y.; Zhu, H.; Li, J.; Lin, K.; Jin, W.; Fei, Z.; Li, G.; Staub, J.; Kilian, A.; Van Der Vossen, E. A. G.; Wu, Y.; Guo, J.; He, J.; Jia, Z.; Ren, Y.; Tian, G.; Lu, Y.; Ruan, J.; Qian, W.; Wang, M. (2009). "The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L". Nature Genetics 41 (12): 1275–1281. doi:10.1038/ng.475. PMID 19881527.  edit
  3. ^ "Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers – Countries By Commodity". Fao.org. Retrieved 2012-05-12. 
  4. ^ a b Doijode, S. D. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56022-901-2 p. 281
  5. ^ Renner, SS; Schaefer, H; Kocyan, A (2007). "Phylogenetics of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae): Cucumber (C. sativus) belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo)". BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 58. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-58. PMC 3225884. PMID 17425784. 
  6. ^ Cucumis hystrix. Newstrackindia.com (2010-07-21). Retrieved on 2012-11-25.
  7. ^ cucumber, Encyclopaedia Britannica on-line.
  8. ^ Numbers 11:15
  9. ^ Although the ostracon was written in Greek, Daniel implies that the writer used the Arabic word instead of the Greek because the recipient, who has a Semitic name Salamanes, was a native Arabic speaker. Robert W. Daniel, "From Work on the Petra Papyri: Arabic on a Greek Ostracon from Roman Egypt and the Name of the Church Father Sozomen", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 131 (2000), pp. 173-176
  10. ^ Pliny, N.H., 19, 23
  11. ^ Pliny, N.H., 20.3
  12. ^ Pliny, N.H., 20.4-5
  13. ^ Saturday 22 August 1663 (Pepys' Diary). Pepysdiary.com. Retrieved on 2012-11-25.
  14. ^ Jordan-Reilly, Melissa. "Why do cucumbers upset my digestion?". LiveStrong.com. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  15. ^ Apple Cucumbers. Wairarapa Eco Farms. wefs.co.nz
  16. ^ "The 'c-thru' cucumbers with no skin to encumber them". Daily Mail (London: Daily Mail). 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 
  17. ^ Wild cucumbers got you in a pickle?. SFGate (2004-10-16). Retrieved on 2012-11-25.
  18. ^ Adam Drewnowski and Carmen Gomez-Carneros (2000-12-01). "Bitter taste, phytonutrients, and the consumer: a review". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  19. ^ Cucurbitacin C -toxnet.nlm.nih.gov
  20. ^ "E.coli-infected cucumber scare spreads beyond Germany". BBC News (BBC). 2011-05-29. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  21. ^ "Deadly E. coli infections still rising in Germany". BBC News (BBC). 2011-06-01. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  22. ^ Gallagher, James (2 June 2011). "E. coli outbreak is a new strain". BBC News. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

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There are many cultivars, some of them are also treated as taxonomic varieties but they are mostly seasonal varieties as they mainly differ in fruit size, shape and surface. Mainly two fruit forms are common, one with elongated or cylindric fruit and the other with ovoid fruit. One variety with muricate fruit surface is also common in European countries.
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