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Overview

Comprehensive Description

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"Notes: Western Ghats, High Altitude, Cultivated, Native of China"
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Pune Kerala: Kozhikode Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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Native in Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, and Zhejiang; cultivated in Fujian, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, and Xizang [cultivated in most tropical and temperate regions].
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Distribution: Indigenous in China. Cultivated in Pakistan and other countries.
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China, Taiwan. Cultivated in temperate and subtropical regions.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs deciduous, erect, 1.5-4 m tall. Branchlets yellow stellate puberulent. Stipules filiform-subulate, ca. 6 mm, pilose; petiole 5-25 mm, stellate pubescent adaxially; leaf blade rhomboid to triangular-ovate or broadly lanceolate, variously 3-lobed or entire, 3-10 × 2-4 cm, papery, abaxially puberulent along veins or glabrous, adaxially glabrous, basal veins 3-5, base cuneate, margin irregularly incised, apex obtuse to subacute. Flowers solitary, axillary on upper branches. Pedicel 4-14 mm, stellate puberulent. Epicalyx lobes 6-8, filiform, 6-20 × 0.5-2 mm, ± free, connate at base only, densely stellate puberulent, apex obtuse or acute. Calyx campanulate, 14-20 mm, densely stellate puberulent, lobes 5, triangular. Corolla blue-purple, violet, white, pink, or reddish, sometimes with darker center, campanulate, sometimes double, 5-6 cm in diam.; petals obovate, 3.5-4.5 cm, pilose and stellate villous abaxially. Staminal column ca. 3 cm. Style glabrous. Capsule ovoid-globose, ca. 12 mm in diam., densely yellow stellate puberulent. Seeds reniform, with yellow-white hairs abaxially. Fl. Jul-Oct.
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Description

A shrub, 1-3 m tall, nearly glabrous. Leaves 2.5-9 cm long, 1.5-5 cm broad, elliptic-rhombic, irregularly dentate, acute at apex, cuneate at base, unlobed or obscurely to deeply 3-lobed; stipules 4-6 mm long, linear; petiole 0.5-3.5 cm long, pubescent. Flowers axillary, solitary, large, single or double; pedicel 0.5-2 cm long, stellate pubescent. Epicalyx segments 6-8, 6-15 mm long, linear, stellate pubescent. Calyx 1.2-1.7 cm long, free to the middle, yellowish, stellate pubescent; lobes lanceolate, acute. Corolla 4-5 cm across, of various colours; petals obovate, 3-5 cm long, 2-3.5 cm broad, stellate hairy outside, glabrescent, claw ciliate margined. Staminal column inserted, antheriferous to the base. Capusle 1.5-2 cm long, 1 cm across, ellipsoid, yellowish stellate pubescent, beaked. Seeds 2-4 mm long, reniform, glabrous except with a line of long white hairs on the dorsal side.
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Elevation Range

910-2300 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Erect Shrub
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Synonym

Ketmia arborea Moench, nom. illeg. superfl.; K. syriaca (Linnaeus) Scopoli; K. syrorum Moench, nom. illeg. superfl..
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Ecology

Habitat

● Sea cliffs, hillsides, along streams, roadsides, also extensively cultivated; below 1200 m.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta malvicola causes spots on Hibiscus syriacus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on dead stem of Hibiscus syriacus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hibiscus syriacus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Hibiscus syriacus

Hibiscus syriacus is a species of flowering plant in the family Malvaceae, native to much of Asia (though not, as Linnaeus thought, Syria, in spite of the name he gave it).[2] Common names include Rose of Sharon (especially in North America), rose mallow (United Kingdom) and St Joseph's rod (Italy).

Description[edit]

H. syriacus is a hardy deciduous shrub. It is upright and vase-shaped, reaching 2–4 m (7–13 ft) in height, bearing large trumpet-shaped flowers with prominent yellow-tipped white stamens.[3] The flowers are often pink in color, but can also be dark pink (almost purple), light pink or white. Individual flowers are short-lived, lasting only a day. However, numerous buds are produced on the shrub's new growth, and this provides provides prolific flowering over a long summer blooming period. Shoots make interesting indoor vase cuttings, as they stay green for a long time, and some new flowers may open from the more mature buds. The species has naturalized very well in many suburban areas, and might even be termed slightly invasive, so frequently does it seed around.

Garden history[edit]

Hibiscus syriacus has been a garden shrub in Korea since time immemorial; its leaves were brewed into an herbal tea and its flowers are eaten. It was grown in Europe from the 16th century, though as late as 1629 John Parkinson thought it was tender and took great precautions with it, thinking it "would not suffer to be uncovered in the Winter time, or yet abroad in the Garden, but kept in a large pot or tubbe in the house or in a warme cellar, if you would have them to thrive."[4] By the end of the 17th century, some knew it to be hardy: Gibson, describing Lord Arlington's London house noted six large earthen pots coddling the "tree hollyhock", as he called it, "that grows well enough in the ground".[5] By the 18th century the shrub was common in English gardens and in the American colonies, known as Althea frutex and "Syrian ketmia".[6]

Cultivars[edit]

Though it has no autumn color and can be stiff and ungainly if badly pruned, H. syriacus remains a popular ornamental shrub today, with many cultivars. William Robinson mentioned several varieties in The English Flower Garden that are still available today. Triploid varieties were first produced at the National Arboretum, Washington DC, by Dr. D. Egolf, resulting in plants that bloom lavishly, as they are sterile and set no seed; Egolf varieties named for goddesses include the outstanding white 'Diana'. Also in the market are 'Lady Stanley', 'Ardens', 'Lucy', and 'Blushing Bride'.

Cultivars of H. syriacus are widely planted in areas with hot summers for their very attractive white, pink, red, lavender, or purple large and edible flowers. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • 'Diana'[7] (single, pure white)
  • 'Hamabo'[8] (pale pink with deep red centre)
  • Lavender Chiffon 'Notwoodone'[9] (pale lilac)
  • 'Meehanii'[10] (pink with cream variegated leaves)      
  • 'Oiseau Bleu'[11] (blue-violet with maroon centre)
  • 'Red Heart'[12] (white with deep red centre)
  • 'William R. Smith'[13] (single white)
  • 'Woodbridge'[14] (deep pink)

Propagation[edit]

Hibiscus syriacus is fairly easily propagated from either seeds, with variable results, or by layering or cuttings, cloning the original.

National flower[edit]

Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea. The flower appears in national emblems, and Korea is compared poetically to the flower in the South Korean national anthem. The flower's name in Korean is mugunghwa (Hangul: 무궁화; Hanja: 無窮花). The flower's symbolic significance stems from the Korean word mugung, which means "eternity" or "inexhaustible abundance".

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved April 8, 2014. 
  2. ^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Hibiscus".
  3. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  4. ^ Parkinson, Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris, 1629.
  5. ^ Quoted in Coats 1992.
  6. ^ Ann Leighton, American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: 'For Use or Delight' (1976:429).
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Diana'". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Hamabo'". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus Lavender Chiffon 'Notwoodone'". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Meehanii'". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Oiseau Bleu'". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  12. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Red Heart'". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  13. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'William R. Smith'". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Woodbridge'". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Despite the specific epithet, Hibiscus syriacus originated in China but was taken into cultivation very early and was distributed to the Middle East along early trade routes. It is a very popular frost-hardy flowering shrub from which many named cultivars have been developed, some of which have been given formal scientific names. These include:

H. syriacus var. alboplenus Loudon (白花重瓣木槿 bai hua chong ban mu jin): Flowers double, white, 6-10 cm in diam.

H. syriacus var. amplissimus L. F. Gagnepain (粉紫重瓣木槿 fen zi chong ban mu jin): Flowers double, pink-purple with red center.

H. syriacus var. brevibracteatus S. Y. Hu (短苞木槿 duan bao mu jin): Leaf blade rhomboid, base cuneate. Flowers single, purplish. Epicalyx lobes very small, 3-5 × 0.5-1 mm, silky.

H. syriacus var. elegantissimus L. F. Gagnepain (雅致木槿 ya zhi mu jin): Flowers double, pink, 6-7 cm in diam.

H. syriacus var. grandiflorus Rehder (大花木槿 da hua mu jin): Flowers single, peach or red.

H. syriacus var. longibracteatus S. Y. Hu (长苞木槿 chang bao mu jin): Flowers single, purplish. Epicalyx lobes nearly as long as sepals, 15-20 × 1-2 mm.

H. syriacus var. paeoniiflorus L. F. Gagnepain (牡丹木槿 mu dan mu jin): Flowers double, pink or purplish, 7-9 cm in diam.

H. syriacus var. totoalbus T. Moore (白花牡丹木槿 bai hua dan ban mu jin): Flowers single, white.

H. syriacus var. violaceus L. F. Gagnepain (紫花重瓣木槿 zi hua chong ban mu jin): Flowers double, greenish purple.

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Comments

It is an ornamental plant grown in gardens or as hedge.
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