Localities documented in Tropicos sources
Canada (North America)
Ecuador (South America)
Gabon (Africa & Madagascar)
United States (North America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- Jørgensen, P. M. & C. Ulloa Ulloa. 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador---A checklist. AAU Rep. 34: 1–443. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/47124
- Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1949. Malvaceae. In Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (Eds), Flora of Guatemala - P art VI. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(6): 324–386. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/6462
- Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1103
- Fryxell, P. A. 1988. Malvaceae of Mexico. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 25: 1–522. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/31284
- Fryxell, P. A. 1992. 118. Malvaceae. 44: 1–141. In G. W. Harling & B. B. Sparre (eds.) Fl. Ecuador. University of Göteborg and Swedish Museum of Natural history, Göteborg and Stockholm. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/37532
- Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/866
- McVaugh, R. 2001. Ochnaceae to Loasaceae. 3: 9–751. In R. McVaugh Fl. Novo-Galiciana. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1019947
- ORSTOM. 1988. List Vasc. Pl. Gabon Herbier National du Gabon, Yaounde. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1671
- Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Choripetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 2. 655 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1704
- Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/42250
- Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/636
- Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1493
- Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1515
- Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1327
- Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2007. Fl. China 12: 1–534. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1032250
- Fryxell, P. A. 1992. Malvaceae. Fl. Veracruz 68: 1–255. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1010349
- Balick, M. J., M. Nee & D. E. Atha. 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 85: i–ix, 1–246. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1014725
- García-Mendoza, A. J. & J. Meave del Castillo. 2011. Divers. Florist. Oaxaca 1–351. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100009052
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta malvicola causes spots on Hibiscus syriacus
Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on dead stem of Hibiscus syriacus
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hibiscus syriacus
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
Hibiscus syriacus is a species of flowering plant in the family Malvaceae, native to much of Asia (though not, as Linnaeus thought, Syria, in spite of the name he gave it). Common names include Rose of Sharon (especially in North America), rose mallow (United Kingdom) and St Joseph's rod (Italy).
H. syriacus is a hardy deciduous shrub. It is upright and vase-shaped, reaching 2–4 m (7–13 ft) in height, bearing large trumpet-shaped dark pink flowers with prominent yellow-tipped white stamens. Individual flowers are short-lived, lasting only a day. However, numerous buds are produced on the shrub's new growth, which provides prolific flowering over a long summer blooming period. Shoots make interesting indoor vase cuttings, as they stay green for a long time. In the vase some new flowers may open from the more mature buds. The species has naturalized very well in many suburban areas, and might even be termed slightly invasive, so frequently does it seed around.
Hibiscus syriacus has been a garden shrub in Korea since time immemorial; its leaves were brewed for a tisane and its flowers are eaten. It was grown in Europe from the 16th century, though as late as 1629 John Parkinson thought it was tender and took great precautions with it, thinking it "would not suffer to be uncovered in the Winter time, or yet abroad in the Garden, but kept in a large pot or tubbe in the house or in a warme cellar, if you would have them to thrive." By the end of the 17th century, some knew it to be hardy: Gibson, describing Lord Arlington's London house noted six large earthen pots coddling the "tree hollyhock", as he called it, "that grows well enough in the ground". By the 18th century the shrub was common in English gardens and in the American colonies, known as Althea frutex and "Syrian ketmia".
Though it has no autumn color and can be stiff and ungainly if badly pruned, H. syriacus remains a popular ornamental shrub today, with many cultivars. William Robinson mentioned several varieties in The English Flower Garden that are still available today. Triploid varieties were first produced at the National Arboretum, Washington DC, by Dr. D. Egolf, resulting in plants that bloom lavishly, as they are sterile and set no seed; Egolf varieties named for goddesses include the outstanding white 'Diana'. Also in the market are 'Lady Stanley', 'Ardens', 'Lucy', and 'Blushing Bride'.
Cultivars of H. syriacus are widely planted in areas with hot summers for their very attractive white, pink, red, lavender, or purple large and edible flowers. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-
Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea. The flower appears in national emblems, and Korea is compared poetically to the flower in the South Korean national anthem. The flower's name in Korean is mugunghwa (Hangul: 무궁화; Hanja: 無窮花). The flower's symbolic significance stems from the Korean word mugung, which means "eternity" or "inexhaustible abundance".
- Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Hibiscus".
- RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
- Parkinson, Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris, 1629.
- Quoted in Coats 1992.
- Ann Leighton, American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: 'For Use or Delight' (1976:429).
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Diana'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Hamabo'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus Lavender Chiffon 'Notwoodone'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Meehanii'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Oiseau Bleu'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Red Heart'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'William R. Smith'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Woodbridge'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
H. syriacus var. alboplenus Loudon (白花重瓣木槿 bai hua chong ban mu jin): Flowers double, white, 6-10 cm in diam.
H. syriacus var. amplissimus L. F. Gagnepain (粉紫重瓣木槿 fen zi chong ban mu jin): Flowers double, pink-purple with red center.
H. syriacus var. brevibracteatus S. Y. Hu (短苞木槿 duan bao mu jin): Leaf blade rhomboid, base cuneate. Flowers single, purplish. Epicalyx lobes very small, 3-5 × 0.5-1 mm, silky.
H. syriacus var. elegantissimus L. F. Gagnepain (雅致木槿 ya zhi mu jin): Flowers double, pink, 6-7 cm in diam.
H. syriacus var. grandiflorus Rehder (大花木槿 da hua mu jin): Flowers single, peach or red.
H. syriacus var. longibracteatus S. Y. Hu (长苞木槿 chang bao mu jin): Flowers single, purplish. Epicalyx lobes nearly as long as sepals, 15-20 × 1-2 mm.
H. syriacus var. paeoniiflorus L. F. Gagnepain (牡丹木槿 mu dan mu jin): Flowers double, pink or purplish, 7-9 cm in diam.
H. syriacus var. totoalbus T. Moore (白花牡丹木槿 bai hua dan ban mu jin): Flowers single, white.
H. syriacus var. violaceus L. F. Gagnepain (紫花重瓣木槿 zi hua chong ban mu jin): Flowers double, greenish purple.