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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs or small trees. Branchlets yellowish green to yellowish red, pilose or glabrous. Stipules semiorbicular, apex acute; petiole ca. 1 cm; leaf blade ovate-oblong, broadly ovate to obovate-oblong 5-7 × 2.5-4 cm, slightly thick, abaxially tomentose or downy, adaxially dull green, wrinkled, more conspicuously so when fresh, glabrous, base rounded, margin irregularly notched, dentate, or subentire, usually slightly recurved, apex acute or apiculate, usually contorted; reticulate veins conspicuous abaxially. Flowering precocious. Male catkin ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 × ca. 1.5 cm, sessile; bracts 2-colored, light proximally, black distally, lanceolate, ca. 2 mm, long pubescent. Male flower: gland adaxial; stamens 2, distinct; filaments 6-8 mm, slender; anthers yellow, oblong. Female catkin shortly cylindric, ca. 2 × 0.8-1 cm, to 6 × 1.8 cm in fruit, shortly pedunculate; bracts as in male catkin. Female flower: gland as in male flowers; ovary narrowly conical, 2.5-3 mm, downy; stipe ca. 2 mm; style short; stigma 2-4-lobed. Capsule to 9 mm. Fl. Apr, fr. May-Jun. 2n = 38.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Mountain slopes, woods. Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol [N Asia, Europe]
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Associations

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Amauronematus amentorum feeds within fruiting catkin of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Amauronematus fasciatus grazes on leaf of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Amauronematus semilacteus grazes on leaf of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Amauronematus viduatus grazes on leaf of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Aulagromyza fulvicornis may be found on leaf of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous apothecium of Calycellina indumenticola is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf (hairs) of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 3-7

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Compsidolon salicellus sucks sap of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: (7)8-9(10)

Foodplant / saprobe
grouped, immersed perithecium of Coronophora annexa is saprobic on dead twig of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 1-2

Foodplant / mobile cased feeder
larva of Cryptocephalus coryli grazes in mobile case on fallen leaf of Salix caprea
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus nitidulus may be found on Salix caprea
Remarks: season: early 5-9

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus punctiger may be found on Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 5-8
Other: uncertain

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus pusillus may be found on Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 5-10

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus violaceus may be found on Salix caprea

Foodplant / saprobe
Diplodina coelomycetous anamorph of Cryptodiaporthe salicella is saprobic on dead twig of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 1-2

Foodplant / saprobe
mostly in clusters of 2 to 4 pseudothecium of Cucurbitaria rubefaciens is saprobic on dead branch of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
loosely gregarious, erumpent stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora salicis is saprobic on dead, often attached twig of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 1-8

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dorytomus majalis feeds within catkin of Salix caprea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dorytomus melanophthalmus feeds within catkin of Salix caprea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dorytomus rufatus feeds within catkin of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dorytomus salicinus feeds within catkin? of Salix caprea

Foodplant / feeds on
Dorytomus salicis feeds on Salix caprea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dorytomus taeniatus feeds within catkin of Salix caprea

Plant / associate
Euphranta toxoneura is associated with Salix caprea

Foodplant / gall
larva of Euura mucronata causes gall of live bud and bud-peduncle of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Euura venusta causes gall of leaf (petiole base) of Salix caprea

Foodplant / saprobe
numerous, clustered, stromatic apothecium of Godronia fuliginosa is saprobic on dead branch of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / pathogen
fruitbody of Heterobasidion annosum infects and damages live root of Salix caprea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Hexomyza simplicoides causes gall of twig cortex of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hyalotricha salicicola is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 10-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hydropus scabripes is saprobic on decayed, fallen leaf of litter of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse stroma of Hypoxylon multiforme is saprobic on dead, decorticate branch of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 10-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
widely effused stroma of Hypoxylon rubiginosum agg. is saprobic on dead branch of Salix caprea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous, usually single, immersed, stromatic perithecium of Isothea saligna is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 3-8

Foodplant / gall
immersed larva of Iteomyia capreae causes gall of leaf of Salix caprea

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Lochmaea caprea grazes on leaf of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous uredium of Melampsora caprearum parasitises live leaf of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
mostly hypophyllous, subepidermal telium of Melampsora epitea parasitises live leaf of Salix caprea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena truncosalicicola is saprobic on dead, standing trunk of Salix caprea

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous, immersed pseudothecia of Mycosphaerella punctiformis is saprobic on overwintered, fallen leaf of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or erumpent stroma of Nemania serpens is saprobic on dead branch of Salix caprea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Orthotylus marginalis feeds on Salix caprea

Foodplant / roller
larva of Pamphilius gyllenhali rolls leaf of Salix caprea

Foodplant / saprobe
rather densely gregarious, subepidermal, emergent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis salicina is saprobic on dead branch of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 10-5

Foodplant / roller
larva of Phyllocolpa leucapsis rolls leaf edge of Salix caprea

Foodplant / roller
larva of Phyllocolpa leucosticta rolls leaf edge of Salix caprea

Foodplant / pathogen
mycelium of Phytophthora ramorum infects and damages Salix caprea

Plant / associate
Pilophorus clavatus is associated with Salix caprea

Foodplant / gall
larva of Pontania bridgmanii causes gall of leaf of Salix caprea

Foodplant / gall
larva of Pontania pedunculi causes gall of leaf (underside) of Salix caprea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora coniceps grazes on leaf of Salix caprea

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Psallus ambiguus sucks sap of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Psallus haematodes sucks sap of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: late 7-9

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Psallus variabilis sucks sap of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 6-7

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, becoming superficial apothecium of Pyrenopeziza fuckelii is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / parasite
Phacidiella anamorph of Pyrenopeziza salicis parasitises live twig of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous colony of Ramularia anamorph of Ramularia rosea causes spots on live leaf of Salix caprea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites tomentosus feeds within bud (vegetative) of Salix caprea

Foodplant / spot causer
conidioma of Melasmia coelomycetous anamorph of Rhytisma salicinum causes spots on live leaf of Salix caprea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula subrubens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Salix caprea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
adult of Salicarus roseri is associated with Salix caprea
Remarks: season: mid 6-8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Schizopora radula is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Salix caprea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes ochracea is saprobic on dead wood of Salix caprea

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Uncinula adunca var. regularis parasitises live leaf of Salix caprea

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Venturia chlorospora is saprobic on dead leaf of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 4-6

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Vuilleminia coryli is saprobic on dead, decorticate, attached branch of Salix caprea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Zeugophora flavicollis grazes on leaf of tree (at least 8m in height) of Salix caprea
Remarks: season: 8-10,5-7

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Uncinula adunca var. regularis parasitises Salix caprea x viminalis (S. x sericans)

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Uncinula adunca var. regularis parasitises Salix caprea x cinerea (S. x reichardtii)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Salix caprea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Salix caprea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 45
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Salix caprea

Salix caprea (goat willow, also known as the pussy willow or great sallow) is a common species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.[1]

It is a deciduous shrub or small tree, reaching a height of 8–10 m (26–33 ft), rarely to 13 m. The leaves are 3-12 cm long and from 2-8 cm wide, broader than most other willows. The flowers are soft silky, and silvery 3-7-cm-long catkins are produced in early spring before the new leaves appear; the male and female catkins are on different plants (dioecious). The male catkins mature yellow at pollen release, the female catkins mature pale green. The fruit is a small capsule 5-10 mm long containing numerous minute seeds embedded in fine, cottony hairs. The seeds are very small (about 0.2 mm) with the fine hairs aiding dispersal; they require bare soil to germinate.[1][2]

The two varieties are:[1]

  • S. c. var. caprea - lowland regions throughout the range, leaves thinly hairy above, densely hairy below, 5-12 cm long, stipules persistent until autumn
  • S. c. var. sphacelata (Sm.) Wahlenb. (syn. S. caprea var. coaetanea Hartm.; S. coaetanea (Hartm.) Floderus) - high altitudes in the mountains of central and northern Europe (Alps, Carpathians, Scotland, Scandinavia), leaves densely silky-hairy on both sides, 3-7 cm long, stipules early deciduous

The scientific name, and the common name goat willow, probably derive from the first known illustration of the species in Hieronymus Bock's 1546 Herbal, where the plant is shown being browsed by a goat. The species was historically also widely used as a browse for goats, to which Bock's illustration may refer.[3]

Ecology[edit]

Male catkins

S. caprea occurs both in wet environments, such as riverbanks and lake shores, and in drier sites, wherever bare soil becomes available due to ground disturbance.[1]

Hybrids with several other willow species are common, notably with Salix cinerea (S. × reichardtii), Salix aurita (S. × multinervis), Salix viminalis (S. × smithiana), and Salix purpurea (S. × sordida). Populations of S. caprea often show hybrid introgression.[1][2]

Unlike almost all other willows, pure specimens do not take root readily from cuttings; if a willow resembling the species does root easily, it is probably a hybrid with another species of willow.[2]

The leaves are used as a food resource by several species of Lepidoptera, and are also commonly eaten by browsing mammals. Willows are very susceptible to gall inducers, and the midge Rhabdophaga rosaria forms the camellia gall on S. caprea.[4]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

A small number of cultivars have been selected for garden use. The most common is S. caprea 'Kilmarnock', with stiffly pendulous shoots, forming a mop-head; it is a male clone. A similar female clone is S. caprea 'Weeping Sally'. As they do not form a leader, they are grafted on erect stems of other willows; the height of these cultivars is determined by the height at which the graft is made.[2] Plants can also be grown from greenwood cuttings, which make attractive creeping mounds. Hardwood cuttings are often difficult to root.

Both tannin and salicin can be extracted from goat willow bark. The tree is not considered a good source of timber, as its wood is both brittle and known to crackle violently if burned.

As with the closely related Salix discolor (American pussy willow), it is also often grown for cut flowers. See Pussy willow for further cultural information, which apply to both species.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Meikle, R. D. (1984). Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook 4. ISBN 0-901158-07-0.
  2. ^ a b c d Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins. ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  3. ^ Bean, W. J. (1980). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. ISBN 0-7195-2428-8.
  4. ^ Gall Inducers[dead link]
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Salix hultenii

Salix hultenii is a species of willow native to Hokkaidō (Japan), (South Korea), Kuriles, Sakhalin and Kamchatka (Russia).

It is a deciduous small tree or large shrub, reaching a height of 15 m.


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Notes

Comments

Specimens of Salix sinica from N and NW China have been misidentified as this species. Salix caprea differs from S. sinica follows: leaves thick, pubescent; filaments longer, 6-7 ×  as long as than bracts; ovary slightly longer than stipe.
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